The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare) enacted in 2012 has taken several years to implement and phase in. But now that the Obamacare 2014 individual health insurance mandate is in effect, many taxpayers will face confusion over tax penalties, exemptions, premium tax credits, claw backs of subsidies (advanced credits) and extra tax-preparation fees to comply with Obamacare on 2014 tax filings. In this post, I help clarify the details of the mandate.
There are three scenarios for dealing with the mandate on 2014 tax returns:
1. Off-exchange coverage: If you had ACA-compliant health insurance coverage for all of 2014 — either an individual plan purchased directly from an insurance company (off exchange), an employer plan or government-sponsored programs like Medicare or Medicaid — there’s little to do. You may receive a new IRS Form 1095-B reporting your health insurance coverage from an insurance company and, if applicable, a Form 1095-C from your employer. Both of these tax forms are not mandatory for 2014. Give the 1095s to your accountant and you’re finished. There won’t be any penalties, premium tax credits or return of exchange subsidies.
2. On-exchange coverage: If you purchased your 2014 health insurance on an exchange (marketplace), you will receive a mandatory Form 1095-A from the marketplace and you must file new tax Form 8962 (Premium Tax Credit). When you applied for your 2014 health insurance coverage, you submitted estimates of your 2014 income which the exchange relied on for pricing your plan, perhaps offering a subsidized plan with “advanced credits.” The purpose of Form 8962 is to determine your rightful premium tax credit based on income reported on your 2014 tax return and to reconcile advanced credits (if any) with the premium tax credit calculated on Form 8962. Estimates probably won’t match actual income, especially for traders who have fluctuations in trading gains and losses.Therefore, one of three things will happen on Form 8962:
i. You will have a tax liability caused by advanced credits being greater than the premium tax credit.
ii. You will have a tax credit caused by advanced credits being less than the premium tax credit.
iii. No tax liability or credit because you used an exchange but did not receive an advanced credit and there is no premium tax credit.
The Obamacare Website says individuals can use an exchange even without getting a subsidized plan, but we heard from taxpayers that they were not permitted to use some state exchanges unless they qualified for subsidies. Some individuals say they received a better quote off exchange compared to on exchange without subsidies. Expect to receive new tax information document IRS Form 1095-A from the exchange reporting your coverage and any advanced credits paid for a subsidized plan. Give the 1095s to your accountant and he or she will prepare Form 8962. Tax software should have an input area to enter Form 1095 information and calculate Form 8962 and the premium tax credit.
3. No health insurance coverage: If you did not have ACA-compliant health insurance coverage for 2014 — and that includes large gaps in coverage — and you don’t qualify for an exemption from Obamacare, then you will owe a shared-responsibility payment (tax penalty). Apply to an exchange to receive a Form 8965 exemption for certain types of exemptions, and for others types of exemption claim them on a self-prepared Form 8965. As of Oct. 29, the IRS had not yet released a draft tax form for calculating the shared responsibility payment.
The shared responsibility payment is whichever amount is larger of the following: For 2014, the payment is either $95 per adult and $47.50 per child (up to $285 for a family) or 1% of household income. For 2015, it’s either $325 per adult and $162.50 per child (up to $975 for a family) or 2% of household income. For 2016, it’s either $695 per adult and $347.50 per child (up to $2,085 for a family) or 2.5% of household income. Per the IRS Website, “the individual shared responsibility payment is capped at the cost of the national average premium for the bronze level health plan available through the Marketplace in 2014.” As has been widely publicized, the shared responsibility payment is not enforceable by the IRS. That means the IRS will offset the payment against tax refunds due, but it can’t file liens, levy assets or start collection proceedings for this payment. The IRS may fully enforce claw-backs of advanced credits (subsidies) reported on Form 8962.
The 2014 Form 1040 has three lines dealing with the Obamacare health insurance mandate:
- Tax (line 46): Excess advance premium tax credit repayment. Attach Form 8962.
- Payment (line 69): Net premium tax credit. Attach Form 8962.
- Other Taxes (line 61): Health care: individual responsibility (see instructions). Full-year coverage (box to check).
Open enrollment through exchanges for 2015 coverage
Traders should consider special strategies for purchasing 2015 health insurance coverage through exchanges. The open enrollment period runs from Nov. 15, 2014 to Feb. 15, 2015. Most individuals will purchase 2015 insurance before they deal with Obamacare tax compliance on 2014 tax returns.
If you want to receive a premium tax credit on Form 8962, you need to enroll through an exchange, not directly with an insurance provider or employer. You can’t receive premium tax credit if you are eligible for other “minimum essential coverage,” such as employer-sponsored coverage that’s considered adequate and affordable. Traders should use a reasonable basis for providing the exchange with an estimate of household income perhaps qualifying for a subsidized plan with advanced credits. Some exchanges ask for monthly household income for either 2014 or 2015. Remember, you will have to square up with the IRS on a 2015 Form 8962 but at least you’re in the game for filing a Form 8962 and receiving a premium tax credit. Many traders may have low income in 2015 and they should keep this opportunity open. High-income sole proprietors have confidence they won’t get a premium tax credit and they can skip the exchange all together if working directly with an insurance provider is more convenient.
The exchange system is inconvenient for traders who have fluctuating income
Most individuals consider ACA-compliant non-subsidized health insurance plans expensive. If your household income is above 400% of the Federal Poverty Line, you or your family won’t qualify for a subsidized plan on the exchange. You may even face obstacles in using an exchange. No worries, you can purchase an individual or employer ACA-compliant health insurance plan directly through an insurance company. Just keep in mind that rules out the possibility of getting a premium tax credit if you wind up with household income under 400% of the Federal Poverty Line since the insurance must be purchased through an exchange to qualify for the credit.
Many traders have wide fluctuations in trading gains and losses from year-to-year. They could easily fall under 400% of the Federal Poverty Line in 2014 and qualify for an exchange-subsidized plan for the year of 2015. But these traders may wind up with large trading gains in 2015, thereby triggering an “excess advance premium tax credit repayment” (claw back of subsidies) on their 2015 Form 8962. The big problem is the exchange requires an estimate of income before the coverage year starts, and traders don’t know their income until the year ends. Tip: Traders can use an exchange but decline the subsidies up front and file for a premium tax credit if their income is under 400% of the federal poverty line.
There are five new Obamacare tax forms for 2014
1. Form 1095-A: Health Insurance Marketplace Statement. The exchange issues this form to individuals who purchased insurance through an exchange for 2014. (Similar to a bank or broker that issues a tax information Form 1099.) Its instructions state: “You received this Form 1095-A because you or a family member enrolled in health insurance coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace. This Form 1095-A provides information you need to complete Form 8962, Premium Tax Credit (PTC). You must complete Form 8962 and file it with your tax return if you want to claim the premium tax credit or if you received premium assistance through advance credit payments (whether or not you otherwise are required to file a tax return). The Marketplace has also reported this information to the IRS. If you or your family members enrolled at the Marketplace in more than one qualified health plan policy, you will receive a Form 1095-A for each policy.” If the Form 1095-A does not list any advanced credits and you are confident your income will be well above 400% of the Federal Poverty Line, you don’t have to prepare Form 8962. Some taxpayers may easily generate the form with their tax software and choose to attach it with their return just in case IRS computers look for it.
2. Form 1095-B: Health Coverage. The insurance provider issues this form to individuals, although it’s not mandatory for 2014. Its instructions state: “This Form 1095-B provides information needed to report on your income tax return that you, your spouse and individuals you claim as dependents had qualifying health coverage (referred to as “minimum essential coverage”) for some or all months during the year. Individuals who do not have minimum essential coverage and do not qualify for an exemption may be liable for the individual shared responsibility payment. Minimum essential coverage includes government-sponsored programs, eligible employer-sponsored plans, individual market plans and miscellaneous coverage designated by the Department of Health and Human Services. For more information on minimum essential coverage, see Pub. 974, Premium Tax Credit (PTC).”
3. Form 1095-C: Employer-Provided Health Insurance Offer and Coverage. The employer issues this form to individuals, although it’s not mandatory for 2014. Its instructions state: “This Form 1095-C includes information about the health coverage offered to you by your employer. Form 1095-C, Part II, includes information about the coverage, if any, your employer offered to you and your spouse and dependent(s). If you purchased health insurance coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace and wish to claim the premium tax credit, this information will assist you in determining whether you are eligible. For more information about the premium tax credit, see Pub. 974, Premium Tax Credit (PTC).” Some people used an exchange to receive subsidies even though their employer offered them a good health insurance plan as reported on Form 1095-C, so these individuals should be prepared for a claw back of subsidies on Form 8962.
4. Form 8962: Premium Tax Credit. This tax form is prepared by taxpayers and/or their tax preparers. Its instructions state: “Complete Form 8962 only for health insurance coverage in a qualified health plan (described later) purchased through a Health Insurance Marketplace (also known as an exchange). This includes a qualified health plan purchased on www.healthcare.gov.” Caution: An “excess advance premium tax credit repayment” increases estimated income taxes due, whereas a “net premium tax credit” (payment) does not reduce estimated taxes due since payments are listed below tax liability. (That’s inconsistent and unfair in our view.)
The Federal Poverty Line and household income
Exchange subsidies and the Form 8962 premium tax credit are granted to individuals and families with household incomes between 100% and 400% of the “Federal Poverty Line.” Household income is also used for calculating the Obamacare shared responsibility payment for not having minimum essential coverage or an exemption from coverage (Form 8965). Household income is basically taxpayer’s adjusted gross income reported on the tax return plus: Social Security payments excluded from AGI, tax-exempt income (i.e. municipal bond interest), and Form 2555 exclusions for U.S. residents abroad (foreign earned income and housing allowance). Household income also includes the income of any dependents covered on the family insurance plan.
Tax planning tip: Try to defer income and accelerate losses and expenses for household income so you don’t go just a few dollars over 400% of the federal poverty line, as that would require a 100% claw-back of exchange subsidies on Form 8962.
An Obamacare website https://www.healthcare.gov/income-and-household-information/income/ confirms household income includes “Social Security payments, including disability payments — but not Supplemental Security Income (SSI).” According to Form 8962 instructions, social security benefits otherwise not subject to income tax are “added back” since you start with modified AGI rather than just AGI. Eighty-five percent of Social Security payments are included in AGI if the taxpayer exceeds the Social Security AGI threshold of $44,000 for married filing joint ($34,000 for all other taxpayers). Taxpayers under those thresholds exclude 100% of Social Security payments from AGI. Including all social security payments in household income pushes many seniors above the Federal Poverty Line and prevents them from getting a premium tax credit, but most seniors don’t use the exchange because they are covered under Medicare.
For a full description of household income, see Form 8962 instructions.
Federal Poverty Line Chart
(based on Form 8962 instructions; these numbers are slightly different for Hawaii and Alaska residents)
|400% of Federal|
5. Form 8965: Health Coverage Exemptions and instructions. A state or federal exchange needs to issue Form 8965 for certain types of exemptions (like religious), and for other types of exemptions (such as a short coverage gap) the taxpayer may self-prepare the Form 8965. (Be diligent to apply to the appropriate exchange on time — exchanges won’t contact you first.) Taxpayers without a Form 8965 exemption or minimum essential coverage are subject to a shared responsibility payment (see above). For one-page summaries of the exemptions available, see http://www.irs.gov/uac/ACA-Individual-Shared-Responsibility-Provision-Exemptions or IRS Publication 5172 – Facts about Health Coverage Exemptions.
According to Obamacare Mandate: Exemption and Tax Penalty, “The mandate’s exemptions cover a variety of people, including: members of certain religious groups and Native American tribes; undocumented immigrants (who are not eligible for health insurance subsidies under the law); incarcerated individuals; people whose incomes are so low they don’t have to file taxes (currently $9,500 for individuals and $19,000 for married couples); and people for whom health insurance is considered unaffordable (where insurance premiums after employer contributions and federal subsidies exceed 8% of family/household income); and those going without insurance for less than three months in a row … Hardship Exemption Update: If you had your plan canceled in 2014 due to the Affordable Care Act you now qualify for a hardship exemption in 2014. That means you won’t have to pay the shared responsibility payment if you decide to go without insurance and will qualify for low premium, high out-of-pocket catastrophic plans on your state’s health insurance marketplace.” U.S. residents abroad who qualify for Section 911 (foreign earned income exclusion) are deemed to have minimum essential coverage whether they do or not. That means they don’t apply for a Form 8965.
Obamacare is progressive taxation
Obamacare is the epitome of progressive taxation and transfer payments using fiscal policy. Upper-income taxpayers pay more to subsidize lower-income folks, and middle-class taxpayers pay their fair share of more expensive coverage that can’t rider out pre-existing conditions. Like many new major social programs enacted before it, some Obamacare tax hikes started on upper-income taxpayers before the new benefits were even provided, including Obamacare Net Investment Income Tax, which started in 2013 even though Obamacare benefits didn’t start until 2014. (Read more about Net Investment Income Tax reported on Form 8960.)
Open question: Are federal exchange subsidies legal?
One court ruled that federal exchange subsidies are illegal and another court overruled it. The Supreme Court agreed to hear the case (WSJ Nov. 7). Obamacare law authorizes subsidies “through an exchange established by the state,” it does not mention a federal exchange. Obamacare law contemplated that all states would have a state exchange but many states balked and chose to participate in HealthCare.gov, the federal exchange just as some also balked at Obamacare’s Medicaid expansion. Did Obamacare purposely provide an incentive to states to create their own exchange, or was leaving out subsidies for the federal exchange an inadvertent oversight? (Read more: http://www.cnbc.com/id/102137279 and http://www.cnbc.com/id/102147639.)
Two Helpful IRS Fact Sheets on ACA
Per Thompson Reuters on Nov. 10 “Affordable Care Act Provisions Impacting Individuals and Employers: Two new IRS fact sheets provide details on key provisions of the ACA. The IRS notes the most important ACA tax provision for individuals and families is the premium tax credit and individuals without coverage and those who don’t maintain coverage throughout the year must have an exemption or make an individual shared responsibility payment. These provisions will affect 2014 income tax returns filed in 2015. For employers, the workforce size is significant because that’s what determines the applicable ACA provisions. Generally different rules apply to employers with fewer than 50 employees. IRS Fact Sheets FS-2014-09 and FS-2014-10 are available at http://www.irs.gov/uac/Newsroom/Fact-Sheets-2014.”
The employer mandate was delayed
Individuals have felt the brunt of Obamacare compliance over the individual mandate. President Obama issued an executive order to delay the employer mandate. But that delay is ending soon. See CNBC Nov. 11 Obamacare Cadillac plans? You’re gonna pay for that….
Prior to Obamacare, S-Corps could reimburse employees for health insurance on a tax-free basis by not including health insurance reimbursements in employee taxable wages. But starting in 2014, S-Corps must include the health insurance reimbursements in taxable wages for income, FICA and Medicare taxes. Don’t skip over making this change as the Obamacare law includes a fine of $100 per employee, per day. An employer group health insurance plan still delivers tax-free benefits to employees. (Postscript 2/18/15: The IRS issued relief for the above draconian penalty. Read more.)
Consult with your tax adviser to discuss how Obamacare taxes will affect your 2014 tax return and how it may be best for you to obtain coverage for 2015. There’s still plenty of confusion and new surprises will arise, so stay tuned for updates on our blog.
Postscript Nov. 24, 2014: The IRS published new guidance on ACA’s individual mandate, hardship exemption, and premium tax credit. Notice 2014-76, Rev Proc 2014-62 and final regs for Section 5000A on the individual mandate. Notice 2014-76 “Individual Shared Responsibility Payment Hardship Exemptions that May Be Claimed on a Federal Income Tax Return Without Obtaining a Hardship Exemption Certification from the Marketplace.” Rev Proc 2014-62 “This table is used to calculate an individual’s premium tax credit.” The Rev Proc “announces the indexed applicable percentage table in Code Sec. 36B(b)(3)(A), which is used to calculate an individual’s premium tax credit for tax years beginning after calendar year 2015.”
Darren Neuschwander, CPA and Star Johnson, CPA contributed to this article.