Traders Elect 475 For Enormous Tax Savings (Live Updates)

May 20, 2020 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on


May 20: 2019 calendar-year partnership and S-Corp tax returns, and 2020 Section 475 elections for partnerships and S-Corps, were due March 16, 2020. These pass-through tax returns and entity 475 elections are not eligible for virus tax relief with the July 15, 2020 postponement deadline. Postponement relief is limited to 2019 tax returns due April 1, 2020, or after, and the March 16 deadline was before April 1. However, fiscal-year partnership or S-Corp tax returns due on April 1, 2020, or later are eligible for the July 15 deadline.

Traders have calendar-year partnerships and S-Corps, so these entities are not eligible for the July 15 postponement date. Most traders filed 2019 partnership or S-Corp extensions by March 16, some along with 2020 Section 475 elections for the entity. Some of these traders asked our firm if their entity could take advantage of the postponed deadline for making a Section 475 MTM election. The answer is no. Individual traders (sole proprietors) are eligible for July 15 relief for filing 2019 individual tax returns, extensions, and 2020 individual Section 475 elections.

April 9: IRS Notice 2020-23, dated April 9, states on page 7: “Finally, elections that are made or required to be made on a timely filed Specified Form (or attachment to a Specified Form) shall be timely made if filed on such Specified Form or attachment, as appropriate, on or before July 15, 2020.”

Good news: TTS traders as sole proprietor individuals now have to July 15, 2020, to elect Section 475(f) for 2020, as the 475 MTM election is an attachment to a specified form, either F1040 or F4868. Previously, we recommended TTS traders elect 475 by April 15, 2020, to play it safe.

March 28: On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. This bill includes significant economic aid and tax relief provisions. Some tax relief applies retroactively to 2018, 2019, and 2020. See how TTS traders carryback NOLs five tax years for 2018, 2019 and 2020 in our blog post CARES Act Allows 5-Year NOL Carrybacks For Immediate Tax Refunds. If you have massive trading losses in 2020, a timely-filed 475 election is essential for TTS traders this year!

March 25: Our Darren Neuschwander, CPA, communicated with the IRS Chief Counsel’s office for Section 475(f) MTM elections. Mr. Neuschwander asked whether the tax deadline for submitting a 2020 Section 475 election is April 15 or July 15, considering that the IRS delayed the tax-filing deadline to July 15. In our email to the IRS, we gave our rationale for why it should be July 15 (see March 24 update below).

The IRS official told us to watch for an IRS FAQ, which they might add to answer our question, although she gave us no assurances or a timeline.

In the meantime, she highly recommends that those who want to elect 475 MTM for 2020 to file the election statement by attachment to a 2019 tax extension (Form 4868) mailed to the IRS by April 15. That’s what Rev Proc 99-17 requires. The IRS tracks 475 elections with extensions or tax return filings, but not if the taxpayer sends a separate letter with the election. It’s okay if the taxpayer files another extension Form 4868 on July 15 to pay 2019 taxes owed. She reminded us that the IRS does not grant tax relief for late-filed 475 elections.

Therefore, we have been advising clients to make 2020 Section 475 MTM elections on securities and/or commodities by April 15. You can prepare the 2019 tax extension with the 2020 election statement attachment, but wait to file it until the April 15 deadline. Meanwhile, monitor the IRS FAQs and our blog to see if the IRS postpones that deadline as well.

What’s the fuss?
A Section 475 election could be a savior this year with extreme volatility and massive trading losses. Instead of having a capital loss limitation of $3,000, you’ll have unlimited ordinary losses and perhaps a net operating loss (NOL) carryback refund.

Pending stimulus legislation suspends the TCJA business loss limitations, including reauthorizing NOL five-year carrybacks for 2018, 2019, and 2020, and repealing the excess business loss (EBL) restriction. TTS traders with 475 elections would get immediate tax relief. That can replenish your trading account and keep you in business!

March 24: The IRS published FAQs to support Notice 2020-18 for the April 15 tax-deadline postponement to July 15: Filing and Payment Deadlines Questions and Answers. CPA industry groups will likely ask for another round of FAQs to address unanswered questions. It’s important to note that FAQs are not yet “substantial authority,” as tax notices are, and the IRS often changes FAQs at a future date like it recently did with cryptocurrency.

  • Elections: The FAQs don’t mention the word “elections,” including the Section 475 election for TTS traders. The Section 475 MTM election wording comes directly from Rev Proc 99-17, which states:

    “The (election) statement must be filed not later than the due date (without regard to extensions) of the original federal income tax return for the taxable year immediately preceding the election year and must be attached either to that  return or, if applicable, to a request for an extension of time to file that return.”

    In the Notice 2020-18, the IRS moved the due date for 2019 individual tax returns to July 15. The above Q12 allows an automatic extension request on July 15 for more time to file. It seems logical to conclude that a 2020 Section 475 election is due July 15. If the IRS does not explicitly address this question, then a TTS trader with a massive 2020 YTD trading loss might want to file a protective extension request with a 475 election statement attachment by April 15 to play it safe.

March 20: It’s not yet certain if the IRS will accept a 2020 Section 475 election submitted by July 15 in conformity with the postponed tax filing deadline. It would afford traders 90 days of additional hindsight. The IRS promised FAQs soon, which might address “elections.” The original CARES Act bill included moving election deadlines, too. (Update March 23: However, the latest version of the CARES Act bill removed that entire section, perhaps because Treasury already moved the tax deadline to July 15.) If you have a significant Q1 2020 trading loss as a trader eligible for trader tax status (TTS), and you are counting on 475 ordinary loss treatment, then it’s currently safer to file an extension by April 15 and attach a 2020 Section 475 election statement. Stay tuned to our blog posts about the election issue. (See April 15 Tax Deadline Moved To July 15.)

Original blog post, dated Feb. 29, 2020:

With heightened market volatility in Q1 2020, many traders incurred massive losses. TTS traders should consider a 2020 Section 475 election to turn capital losses into ordinary losses. Don’t get stuck with a $3,000 capital loss limitation for 2020 and a considerable capital loss carryover to 2021; unlock immediate tax savings with ordinary-loss deductions against wages and other income this year.

Election procedures: Existing TTS partnerships and S-Corps should attach a 475 election statement to their 2019 entity tax return or extension due March 16, 2020. TTS sole proprietors (individuals) should attach a 475 election statement to their 2019 income tax return or extension due April 15, 2020. The second step is to file a 2020 Form 3115 (Application for Change in Accounting Method) with your 2020 tax return. There are other benefits: 475 trades are exempt from dreaded wash sale loss adjustments, and profitable 475/TTS traders are eligible for the 20% QBI deduction if they are under the QBI taxable income thresholds.

Example 1: A TTS securities trader incurred a capital loss of $103,000 in Q1 2020. He elects Section 475 on securities only by April 15, converting the Q1 capital loss into an ordinary loss on Form 4797 Part II. He also plans to deduct $12,000 of trading business expenses on a Schedule C. He intends to offset the entire trading business loss of $115,000 against a wage income of $175,000 for a gross income of $60,000. Without a 475 election, this trader would have a $3,000 capital loss limitation on Schedule D, a $12,000 ordinary loss on Schedule C, and a gross income of $160,000. He would also have a capital loss carryover to 2021 of $100,000. By deducting the entire $100,000 in 2020 with a 475 election, the trader generates a considerable tax refund.

More about 475
Traders eligible for TTS have the option to make a timely election for the Section 475 accounting method on securities and/or commodities. Section 475 is mark-to-market (MTM) accounting with ordinary gain or loss treatment. MTM imputes sales of open positions at the year-end at market prices. Without MTM, securities traders use the realization (cash) method with capital gains and loss treatment, including wash sale loss adjustments and the annual $3,000 capital loss limitation.

Caution: Sole proprietor (individual) TTS traders who missed the Section 475 MTM election date (April 15, 2019, for 2019) can’t use ordinary-loss treatment for 2019 and are stuck with capital gains and losses and perhaps capital-loss carryovers to 2020. Carefully consider a 475 election for 2020, as you need capital gains to use up capital loss carryovers, and 475 is ordinary income.

A new entity set up after April 15 could deliver Section 475 MTM for the rest of 2020 on trading losses generated in the entity account if it filed an internal Section 475 MTM election within 75 days of inception.

Ordinary losses offset all types of income (wages, portfolio income, and capital gains) on a joint or single filing, whereas capital losses only offset capital gains. Plus, business expenses and ordinary trading losses comprise a net operating loss (NOL) carry forward.

By making a 475 election on securities only, TTS traders retain lower 60/40 capital gains rates on Section 1256 contracts (futures), and they can segregate investment positions for long-term capital gains.

TCJA introduced an excess business loss (EBL) limitation starting in 2018. For 2019, the inflation-adjusted EBL limitation is $510,000/married and $255,000/other taxpayers. The EBL applies to Section 475 ordinary losses and trading expenses. Add an EBL to an NOL carryforward. For example, a single taxpayer with a $300,000 ordinary loss from 475 and trading costs, and no other wage or business income, might have an EBL of $45,000.

TCJA offers a 20% qualified business income (QBI) tax deduction for pass-through businesses, including sole proprietors. TTS trading is a specified service activity. QBI includes 475 ordinary income but excludes capital gains/losses, portfolio income, and forex. TTS expenses are negative QBI. A profitable TTS/475 trader is eligible for the QBI deduction providing their taxable income is not over the QBI thresholds.

Don’t miss the 475 election deadline
Applying for 9100 relief within six months of the 475 election due date by private letter ruling is an expensive process, and it’s likely to fail. Only one trader won this type of relief — Mr. Vines displayed no hindsight and good faith, and he had a perfect set of factors. In PLR 202009013 dated Nov. 15, 2019, the IRS ruled, “Taxpayers are not entitled to § 301.9100 relief to make a late § 475(f)(1) election because Taxpayers did not act reasonably and in good faith and granting relief would prejudice the interests of the Government.”

For more information and a sample 475 election statement, see Green’s 2020 Trader Tax Guide, Chapter 2, on Section 475 MTM.

Darren Neuschwander, CPA, contributed to this blog post.