Author Archives: Robert Green

How To Be Eligible For Independent Contractor Status

August 17, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA

There are significant tax advantages for independent contractors (IC) vs. employees.

  • ICs deduct business expenses, whereas, the new tax law (TCJA) suspended “unreimbursed employee business expenses” as miscellaneous itemized deductions.
  • ICs are eligible for TCJA’s 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction, whereas, employees are not.
  • ICs owe 100% of social security and Medicare taxes (SE tax) on net business income, whereas employers and employees share social security and Medicare taxes 50/50 on salaries.
  • ICs are not enrolled in employer health insurance and retirement plans, whereas employees are. ICs can have individual health insurance and retirement plan AGI-deductions.

You cannot make this determination of IC vs. employee status based on your preference alone. Learn the IRS rules on worker classification. (See IRS resources and Client Letters below.)

Current developments
Some “self-employed individuals” (SEI) hire “professional employer organizations” (PEOs), known as employee leasing companies, to join the PEO payroll and employee benefit plans. The SEI reimburses the PEO for these employment costs, plus a fee. The IRS recently balked at this practice for SEIs.

IRS Chief Counsel Advice (CCA) 201916004 dated April 19, 2019, stated that PEOs could not treat SEIs as employees. PEOs should issue SEIs a Form 1099-MISC for non-employee compensation; not a W-2. This reclassification precludes the SEI from participation in a PEO employee benefit plan. The IRS does not permit sole proprietors, and partners to pay themselves wages. A partnership reports “guaranteed payments” to partners.

Trading income is unearned income. TTS traders use an S-Corp to have officer compensation for arranging employee benefits, including health insurance and retirement plans.

The IRS recently released draft 2020 Form 1099-NEC (non-employee compensation). For the 2019 tax year, a business should continue to report non-employee compensation on Form 1099-MISC box 7. The 2020 Form 1099-NEC will give the IRS more capability to track non-employee compensation. I expect the IRS to examine more companies and challenge their worker classification. Get on the right side of this issue now.

IRS Independent Contractor (Self-Employed) or Employee?
Understanding Employee vs. Contractor Designation

For our full blog post, including “Client Letters” from Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting, please request a copy by email. In the subject line, write “How To Be Eligible For Independent Contractor Status.” (Our tax research provider does not permit us to publish their Client Letters on our Website.)

Darren Neuschwander CPA contributed to this blog post.

How To Avoid Higher Taxes On Wash Sale Losses

August 5, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA

Many securities traders incur significant tax bills on phantom income caused by “wash sale losses disallowed” on form 1099-Bs. Traders are often surprised because most brokers don’t report wash sale (WS) loss calculations during the year. In this blog post, learn how to deal with WS loss adjustments and how to avoid them in the first place.

WS loss reporting on 1099-Bs is confusing
Broker 1099-Bs report “wash sale loss disallowed” (box 1g), and it’s not uncommon to see an enormous amount for an active securities trader. The 1099-B also reports “proceeds” (box 1d), “cost or other basis” (box 1e) and several other related amounts. For example, $10M proceeds minus $9.9M cost or other basis, plus $150,000 of wash sale loss disallowed, equals $250,000 of taxable capital gains. The 1099-B cover page has summary numbers, and supplemental schedules include each securities trade for all of these boxes.

The essential point is that WS loss disallowed in box 1g is for the entire tax year. However, WS losses deferred at year-end cause phantom income in the current tax year. Many WS losses during the year might fade away by year-end (see how below). Unfortunately, brokers do not report WS losses deferred at year-end, and clients need that information. If a trader uses trade accounting software, they need this information to reverse WS loss deferrals from the prior year-end on January 1 of the current tax year.

For example, two different traders can have $1M of WS loss disallowed in box 1g. Trader A doesn’t have WS losses at year-end, and she is not concerned with those adjustments during the year. She sold all open positions by year-end and did not repurchase substantially identical positions in January. Trader B also sold all positions by year-end, but he made trades in January, which triggered $50,000 of WS losses deferred at year-end. Trader B delayed the December WS loss to the subsequent tax year.

Traders need ongoing WS loss information to prevent this predicament. Some monthly brokerage statements include cost basis amounts for month-end open positions listed on the report, and other monthly brokerage statements do not.

Most traders don’t realize they have a WS loss problem until they receive 1099-Bs in late February. That’s too late to avoid WS losses. Some traders and tax preparers import 1099-Bs into tax preparation software. Others enter the amounts to Form 8949 and then attach the 1099-B for details. If the taxpayer has cost basis adjustments, the IRS requires Form 8949; listing each securities proceeds, cost basis, WS losses, and other cost basis adjustments. However, there’s a problem relying solely on 1099-Bs because IRS WS rules for taxpayers vary from WS rules for brokers in preparing those 1099-Bs.

WS rules for taxpayers and brokers are different
Taxpayers must calculate WS losses based on “substantially identical securities” (i.e., Apple equity vs. Apple options), across all taxpayer’s brokerage accounts, including IRAs and spousal accounts if married/filing joint. Conversely, brokers calculate WS based on “identical securities” (an exact symbol) per the one brokerage account. This apples vs. oranges is problematic since the IRS seeks to match broker 1099-Bs to Form 8949 prepared by taxpayers.

Trade accounting software can help
Traders should consider using an IRS-compliant trade accounting software or a professional service using such software. Contemporaneous use of the program allows traders to avoid WS loss adjustments with potential WS loss reports. The software/service also gives taxpayers a second opinion vs. broker 1099-Bs.

Taxpayers and accountants are entitled to depart from 1099-Bs and explain why in the tax return footnotes. For example, a 1099-B might treat an ETN prepaid forward contract (i.e., BATS: VXX) as a security with wash sales. However, an ETN structured as a prepaid forward contract (PFC) is not a security, so WS losses don’t apply. A CBOE-listed option on an ETN/PFC is a “non-equity option” in Section 1256, although most 1099-Bs treat these options as securities subject to WS losses. Many brokers rely on tax treatment provided by exchanges, who try to fit financial instruments into two boxes: securities vs. section 1256 contracts.

Traders should try to reconcile Form 8949 proceeds with 1099-B proceeds. However, they should not expect to match cost-basis information, if trade accounting software calculates WS losses differently.

Trade accounting software downloads all trades, and the program automatically calculates WS losses based on IRS rules for taxpayers, not brokers. The program explains the rationale and provides details on various tax reports.

The 1099-Bs might use FIFO or specific identification and try to reflect the same accounting method in a trade accounting program.

Trade accounting programs might require some manual entries
For the first year of using trade accounting software, traders should enter open positions from the prior year-end with original-cost basis. Additionally, traders should enter deferred WS losses applied to those open positions. Traders should also enter WS losses deferred on closed-positions repurchased within 30 days in January. Trade accounting programs do not download this information from the prior year.

It would come in handy if the broker provided the WS loss deferred at year-end. If that amount was available, you could enter it as a cost basis adjustment, in addition to open positions with an original cost basis.

In the second year of use, the trade accounting program will automatically carry over open positions and wash sale loss adjustments from the prior year. Consult the program vendor and or trade accounting expert.

Jason Derbyshire of TradeLog software says: “If brokers provide detailed reporting of WS loss deferrals at year-end, TradeLog could utilize that information to help automate input into the software. This information would enable traders to accurately track those deferred losses in the software, and make more informed decisions to capture those losses, if needed, in the following tax year.”

What exactly is a wash sale loss?
A wash-sales loss is a timing issue. If you sell a security for a loss and repurchase it 30 days before or after, you cannot deduct the economic loss immediately in a taxable account. You must add the WS loss to the replacement position’s cost basis, which kicks the can (loss) down the road.

WS loss adjustments made during the year in taxable accounts might not be a problem at year-end. Some fade away. For example, a trader can trigger a WS loss every month during the year but absorb it with a significant capital gain on that security toward year-end. Additionally, the trader can “break the chain” at year-end by selling the position and not repurchasing it for 30 days.

There are also permanent WS losses triggered by IRAs, which are catastrophic. When you sell a position at a loss in a taxable account and repurchase a substantially identical position within 30 days in an IRA, there is no way to record the WS loss adjustment in the IRA or taxable account. Brokers don’t report these types of WS losses since they don’t calculate WS across more than one account at a time. If you trade in an IRA only (i.e., you do not trade in taxable accounts), then you don’t have these WS loss issues.

Strategies to avoid wash-sale losses
Consider a “Do Not Trade List” to prevent permanent WS between taxable and IRA accounts. For example, a trader could trade tech stocks in his taxable accounts and energy stocks in his IRA accounts.

Taxpayers can “break the chain” on WS losses at year-end in taxable accounts to avoid deferral. If a trader sells Apple equity at a loss on December 20, 2019, consider not repurchasing Apple equity or Apple equity options until January 21, 2020, avoiding the 30-day window for triggering a WS loss and breaking the chain. In December 2018, many traders realized tax losses before year-end with a market correction. Some didn’t want to wait 30 days and miss the January 2019 rally, thereby triggering significant WS loss deferral at year-end 2018. Deferral of WS losses can become a problem if it causes a capital loss limitation in the subsequent tax year.

WS loss adjustments during the year in taxable accounts can be absorbed if traders sell/buy those open positions before year-end with a profit.

Consider a Section 475 election. Traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) are entitled to elect Section 475 mark-to-market (MTM) accounting, which exempts them from wash-sale loss adjustments and the capital-loss limitation. I call it “tax loss insurance.” Don’t enter Section 475 trades on Form 8949; use Form 4797 Part II (ordinary gain or loss). Although Section 475 extricates securities traders from the compliance headaches of Form 8949, it does not change their requirement for line-by-line reporting on Form 4797.

We recommend trade accounting software to generate Form 4797. If a taxpayer elects Section 475, she will need that software to calculate a Section 481(a) adjustment, too. Even with a Section 475 election, the trader still needs to make the manual entries for open positions and opening-year WS loss adjustments mentioned earlier. The Section 475 election due date for individuals was April 15, 2019, for 2019.

Section 475 ordinary income is “qualified business income” (QBI), which makes the trader eligible for a 20% QBI deduction, providing the trader is under the taxable income thresholds for a “specified service business.” QBI excludes capital gains, interest, and dividend income, which includes capital gains from WS loss phantom income.

Consider a new entity. Trading in an entity account might help avoid ongoing WS loss problems. The company is separate from the individual and IRA accounts for purposes of wash sales since it is a different taxpayer. The IRS is entitled to apply related party transaction rules (Section 267) if the entity purposely tries to avoid wash sales with the owner’s accounts. If the company qualifies for TTS, it can consider a Section 475 MTM election exempting it from wash sales (on TTS positions, not investment positions). A “new taxpayer” entity is entitled to elect Section 475 by internal resolution within 75 days of inception. That comes in handy after missing the 475-election deadline for individuals by April 15.

Trade accounting for securities is less complicated with a new entity since there are no opening-year manual entries for WS losses deferred from the prior year-end.

Trade Section 1256 contracts and other financial instruments that are not considered securities for tax purposes. Learn about Section 1256 contracts in my blog post: Trading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages.

The following financial instruments are not securities or 1256 contracts: ETN prepaid forward contracts, cryptocurrencies, precious metals, and swap contracts. Only securities are subject to wash sale loss adjustments.

GNM CPAs Darren Neuschwander, Christie Kam, and Amanda Smitson contributed to this blog post.

Learn more about wash sale loss rules in Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide.

Watch Out Cryptocurrency Owners, The IRS Is On The Hunt

July 31, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

The massive tax bust of crypto owners has begun with the IRS mailing 10,000 letters to crypto account owners. These letters educate crypto account holders about the rules and tell taxpayers to review their tax reporting for crypto transactions to be sure they reported income correctly. If necessary, taxpayers should file amended tax returns and or late returns. These tax returns should be marked with the corresponding letter type (i.e., Letter 6173, 6174 or 6174-A) and mailed to a particular IRS address. In other words, these tax filings won’t be a needle in the haystack and the IRS will take a close look. Many audits may follow.

IRS Letter 6173

“We have information that you have or had one or more accounts containing virtual currency and may not have met your U.S. tax filing and reporting requirements for transactions involving virtual currency, which include cryptocurrency and non-crypto virtual currencies.”

The IRS might know there is unreported income based on tax information obtained through enforcement actions, which include the summons against U.S. Coinbase customers. You received the letter because you didn’t file a tax return, which should have included virtual currency transactions. Alternatively, you filed a return but did not report virtual currency transactions. You must reply to this tax notice by submitting a correct late tax return or an amended return. If you disagree with the IRS, the letter requires a full explanation with a signed statement declared under penalties of perjury.

Letter 6173 is a severe tax notice, and you should not dig yourself into a bigger hole with an incorrect reply. In some cases, perjury could be a felony. The letter states, “If we don’t hear from you by the “respond by” date we may refer your tax account for examination.”

I wonder how the IRS will conduct its audits of virtual currency transactions. They will need a list of all coin exchanges and private wallets and probably have to use trade accounting software in the same way a taxpayer would.

IRS Letter 6174

“We have information that you have or had one or more accounts containing virtual currency but may not know the requirements for reporting transactions involving virtual currency, which include cryptocurrency and non-crypto virtual currencies. After reviewing the (educational) information below, if you believe you didn’t accurately report your virtual currency transactions on a federal income tax return, you should file amended returns or delinquent returns if you didn’t file a return for one or more taxable years.”

The key phrase is that the taxpayer “may not know” crypto tax treatment. It sounds like the IRS does not have sufficient information indicating unreported income. Letter 6174 is an “educational letter,” and it states, “you do not need to respond to this letter.” If you received this tax notice, then you should review your crypto tax reporting and consider filing an amended tax return, if appropriate. Consider the IRS advice a warning shot across your bow.

Letter 6174-A

“We have information that you have or had one or more accounts containing virtual currency but may not have properly reported your transactions involving virtual currency, which include cryptocurrency and non-crypto virtual currencies. After reviewing the information below, if you believe you didn’t accurately report your virtual currency transactions on a federal income tax return, you should file amended returns or delinquent returns if you didn’t file a return for one or more taxable years. You do not need to respond to this letter.”

The critical phrase is “may not have properly reported.” That’s different from Letter 6173, which states “may not have met” your tax requirements. Letter 6174-A implies the taxpayer reported crypto transactions, but perhaps not in the proper way. For example, maybe the taxpayer used Schedule C (business income) instead of Form 8949 (capital gains). Perhaps they used like-kind exchanges, and the IRS might not allow that. Conversely, Letter 6173 indicates the taxpayer did not report crypto transactions at all.

The IRS has various types of tax information for virtual currency account owners, and it selected the letter that best matched their knowledge base. The IRS is also using third-party services to obtain more tax information. It’s wise to come clean now if you know you have errors in reporting crypto transactions. Historically, taxpayers have performed better in seeking abatement of penalties if they come forward to the IRS before getting busted first.

Civil and criminal prosecution and FBAR reporting
The IRS stressed, “Taxpayers who do not properly report the income tax consequences of virtual currency transactions are, when appropriate, liable for tax, penalties, and interest. In some cases, taxpayers could be subject to criminal prosecution.” The IRS sent mob boss Al Capone to prison for tax evasion, which was less challenging than indicting him for unlawful bootlegging. Learn about accuracy-related penalties and what constitutes reasonable cause for reduction of penalties.

The IRS Virtual Currency Compliance campaign reminds me of IRS initiatives to hunt down hidden offshore bank and brokerage accounts. FATCA legislation forced foreign banks into reporting on U.S. resident accounts. The IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) helped taxpayers come clean with voluntary reporting. That led to reduced penalties, which otherwise were onerous. Some tax cheats used foreign bank accounts to conceal business income from the IRS. Others protected assets with offshore structures and only did not correctly report portfolio income.

In retrospect, it seems the IRS made a mistake in (unofficially) waiving foreign bank account report FinCEN 114 and Form 8938 for offshore virtual currency accounts. Virtual currency is “property,” which did not meet the requirements for FinCEN 114 and Form 8938 (Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets). There are significant penalties for not filing FinCEN 114 (previously known as FBAR) on time with the U.S. Treasury. Once you put Treasury on notice of owning these accounts, it dissuades you from hiding income from the IRS on those same accounts.

Coin-to-coin exchanges
In the educational section of these IRS letters, it states that crypto-to-crypto trades (i.e., Bitcoin for Ether) are taxable capital gains. The letter does not mention Section 1031 or like-kind exchanges being allowed on pre-2018 trades. (The new tax law TCJA restricted like-kind exchanges to real property only, starting in 2018.) Many crypto traders did not report deferred capital gains on coin-to-coin trades. Some may have, but they omitted the required Form 8824.

I’ve questioned whether coin-to-coin trades qualify for like-kind exchange treatment in years before 2018. Different types of virtual currencies might not be eligible as like-kind property, and coin exchanges are not qualified intermediaries. Multi-party like-kind exchanges require both.

Tax information statements and trade accounting
The IRS letters say to report all transactions whether tax information statements (Form 1099) were sent, or not, for crypto accounts held in the U.S., or abroad. Cryptocurrencies are “property,” not a “security,” so it’s not a “covered security” for purposes of 1099-B reporting. Coinbase, the largest U.S. crypto exchange, appeased the IRS during their fight for obtaining taxpayer information, by issuing a Form 1099-K for larger accounts. The IRS intended Form 1099-K for third-party network transactions for merchants; not traders or investors. Only U.S. exchanges might provide 1099-Ks. Coinbase also provided capital gain and loss reports for later years.

Taxpayers should consider using a trade accounting solution or software program to download virtual currency transactions from all coin exchanges and private wallets. Many crypto owners have accounts around the world, and accounting issues are more challenging when trading on margin. The IRS will likely use this same software in an exam.

Additional IRS guidance coming soon
The IRS keeps promising to publish further advice on crypto tax treatment soon. Why did they send 10,000 education letters if they plan to update their education guidance shortly? Perhaps, it would have been better to publish updated guidance before mailing them. This letter campaign seems a bit like a fishing expedition: The IRS wants more tax returns to analyze before it tackles tax treatment issues further.

Additional guidance is expected to address like-kind exchanges; chain splits, permissible accounting methods, wash sales, Section 475, and more. The AICPA issued a letter containing suggested questions and answers. The basics are clear, and the delay in additional guidance is no excuse for non-compliance.

IRS data analytics
The IRS said it would continue to use data analytics, and perhaps other blockchain technology to uncover more non-compliant crypto taxpayers. The IRS successfully used an independent company Chainalysis on recovering tax information from U.S. Coinbase customers. That may have been one of the sources for this first batch of 10,000 account letters.

What tax evaders didn’t initially realize is that virtual currencies may not be an ideal medium of exchange for concealing income and assets from tax authorities. Unlike using cash (dollar bills), blockchain is a distributed ledger which is available to the public. Non-crypto virtual currency may have a private company centralized ledger, but the IRS might be able to get that through a summons, too. AI, blockchain tools, and crypto trade accounting programs will help the IRS bust crypto tax evaders and taxpayers who are honest but misinformed.

Takeaway
This IRS letter campaign is just the beginning of virtual currency enforcement activities to come. You should take this opportunity to get fully educated, review your reporting, and be sure you are tax compliant. Pay tax liabilities and interest expenses, and then seek abatement of penalties when assessed. Some crypto users might try to claim ignorance or argue they received terrible tax advice. Others might assert that the crypto tax rules were too vague and uncertain at the time of filing. Some tax treatment issues are unknown (i.e., like-kind exchanges and hard forks), but the basics are clear. After receiving these education letters, which are warning shots, there are no grounds for continued non-compliance.

Consult a crypto tax expert immediately after receiving any of the above IRS letters. The CPA can reply to Letter 6173 soon and request more time to file amended returns. The 2018 tax return deadlines are coming up on September 15, 2019, for entities, and October 15 for individuals. Plan to work with your CPA after those dates on amended tax return filings.

Breaking news and more resources

IRS IR-2019-132: IRS has begun sending letters to virtual currency owners advising them to pay back taxes, file amended returns; part of agency’s larger efforts. 

WSJ quotes my partner in IRS Sending Warning Letters to More Than 10,000 Cryptocurrency Holders. “When it comes to preparing tax returns involving cryptocurrencies, Darren Neuschwander, a certified public accountant, said many tax preparers are frustrated because the IRS has long promised new guidance on cryptocurrencies that it hasn’t yet released.” “It’s ironic that the IRS is issuing these letters because we’re still waiting to know more rules,” he said.

IRS Sends Out 10,000 Letters to Virtual Currency Investors, Some of Which Demand a Response, By Ed Zollars CPA for Kaplan Financial Education.

Blockchain Analytics Firm Chainalysis Outlines User Data Policy Amid Coinbase Allegations in CoinTelegraph.

The IRS Has Special Software to Find Bitcoin Tax Cheats. Fortune.com

GreenTraderTax cryptocurrency resources:
Tax Center
Blog posts on cryptocurrencies
Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide
Trade accounting service for cryptocurrencies

Darren Neuschwander CPA contributed to this blog post.

 

How To Structure A Trading Business For Significant Tax Savings

June 26, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

If you actively trade securities, futures, forex or crypto, consider setting up a trading business to maximize tax benefits. With a sole proprietorship, a trader eligible for trader tax status (TTS) can deduct business and home-office expenses and make a timely Section 475 election on securities for tax loss insurance and a potential qualified business income (QBI) deduction. By forming an LLC taxed as an S-Corp, a TTS trader can also deduct health insurance premiums and a retirement plan contribution. An investor without TTS cannot get any of these tax benefits.

The new tax law (TCJA) severely limits itemized deductions for investors, while expanding the standard deduction and improving business expensing. TCJA also introduced a 20% deduction on QBI, which includes a TTS trading business with Section 475 income but excludes capital gains and portfolio income. With TCJA, TTS and Section 475 are more valuable than ever before.

Table for choosing a TTS trading business structure

Sole proprietorship
An individual TTS trader deducts business expenses and home office deductions on a Schedule C (Profit or Loss From Business – Sole Proprietorship), which is part of a Form 1040 filing. Schedule C losses are an above-the-line deduction from gross income.

It’s easy to set up a sole proprietorship. First, open an individual brokerage account(s) in the trader’s name and social security number. You don’t need a separate employer identification number (EIN) unless you plan to have employees on the payroll. You can also use a joint individual account but list the trader’s name and social security number first. There is no state filing required for a sole proprietorship as there is for organizing an LLC or incorporating a corporation. You also don’t need a “doing business as” (DBA) name, although you can obtain one if you prefer. There isn’t a federal or state tax election for claiming TTS — it’s determined based on facts and circumstances assessed at year-end.

Don’t confuse TTS with a Section 475 election. Only TTS traders can use Section 475 ordinary gain or loss treatment; however, many TTS traders don’t make a 475 election. TTS is like undergraduate school, and Section 475 is like graduate school: The former is needed to get into the latter, but undergraduates don’t necessarily elect to go on to graduate school. For example, a TTS futures trader might skip a 475 election to retain lower 60/40 capital gains rates on 1256 contracts. You can elect Section 475 on securities only, commodities only, or both.

Here’s an example: An active trader realized in mid-2019 that he qualified for TTS for all of 2018. He can add a Schedule C to his 2018 Form 1040 tax return due on an extension by Oct. 15, 2019. (Traders can use TTS on amended tax returns, too.) A Schedule C provides tax benefits for 2018 and year-to-date in 2019. This trader wants to form an S-Corp later in 2019 to unlock a health insurance deduction for the remainder of 2019 and a high-deductible retirement plan deduction. He realized he qualified for TTS after April 15, so was too late to elect 475 on the individual level for 2019. But a new S-Corp can select Section 475 within 75 days of inception so that the trader will be exempt from wash-sale loss adjustments at year-end 2019.

Section 475 tax benefits
TTS traders are entitled to make a Section 475 election, but investors are excluded from it. I call it “tax loss insurance” because the election exempts securities trades from onerous wash-sale loss adjustments, which can defer tax losses to the subsequent year, and the $3,000 capital loss limitation. Ordinary loss treatment is far better; it can generate tax refunds faster than capital loss carryovers.

A partnership or S-Corp formed during the tax year is considered a “new taxpayer,” which can elect Section 475 internally within 75 days of inception. An individual TTS trader had to choose Section 475 with the IRS by April 15, 2019, so a new partnership or S-Corp comes in handy after the April 15 deadline. An existing taxpayer must also file a Form 3115 (Application for Change in Accounting Method), whereas a new taxpayer adopts 475 from inception, so this filing isn’t necessary.

Prior capital-loss carryovers on the individual level still carry over on Schedule Ds. The new entity can pass through capital gains if the taxpayer skips the Section 475 MTM election to use up those capital loss carryovers. Then, the entity can elect Section 475 MTM in a subsequent tax year. It’s easy to revoke a 475 election in a manner that mirrors making a 475 election.

The qualified business income deduction
TCJA introduced a tax benefit for pass-through businesses, which includes a TTS trader with Section 475 income; whether doing business as a sole proprietor, partnership, or S-Corp. Section 199A provides a 20% QBI deduction on a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB), and TTS trading is an SSTB. However, SSTBs are subject to a taxable income threshold, phase-out range, and income cap. The phase-out range has wage and property limitations, too. Also, the 20% deduction is on whichever is lower: QBI or taxable income minus “net capital gains” defined as net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses, and qualified dividends. It’s a complicated deduction, and most traders won’t get a QBI deduction. QBI includes Section 475 ordinary income and trading business expenses and excludes capital gains and losses, dividends, interest income, forex and swap ordinary income, and investment expenses.

For 2019, the taxable income (TI) cap is $421,400/$210,700 (married/other taxpayers). The phase-out range below the cap is $100,000/$50,000 (married/other taxpayers). The TI threshold is $321,400/$160,700 (married/other taxpayers).

Pass-through entities
A pass-through entity means the company is a tax filer, but it’s not a taxpayer. The owners are the taxpayers, most often on their tax returns. Taxpayers should consider marriage, state residence, and state tax rules, including annual reports, minimum taxes, franchise taxes, excise taxes, and more when setting up an entity. In most states, these taxes are nominal costs. (In Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide, I address state taxes for S-Corps in California, Illinois, other states, and New York City.)

Partnerships
A trader can organize a spousal LLC and file as a partnership. Alternatively, the trader can form a marital general partnership without liability protection afforded by an LLC. Partnerships file a Form 1065 partnership tax return. Establishing a separate legal entity does not alone generate tax benefits; it’s critical for the organization to qualify for TTS. Otherwise, the company is considered an investment company with suspended investment fees and expenses. An investment partnership cannot have business expenses, officer compensation, and employee benefits, including health insurance and retirement plans.

A TTS trading partnership may deduct business expenses, which the partnership Schedule K-1 reports in line one (“ordinary business income/loss”). The individual owner deducts business expenses. If the partnership agreement provides for it, the partner can also deduct “unreimbursed partnership expenses” (UPE) including home office expenses, on Schedule E page 2 (Supplemental Income and Loss). The amounts are entered on the “non-passive income” column since a TTS loss is exempt from Section 469 passive activity loss rules under the “trading rule” exception.

A partnership tax return looks better to the IRS vs. a Schedule C with different tax forms for trading gains and losses. The partnership return consolidates Section 475 ordinary income/loss with business expenses in line one of Schedule K-1. Partnership capital gains are easy to see on the partnership Schedule K and K-1. On the contrary, there is a red flag with a Schedule C displaying business expenses. Individual-level trading gains and losses are on other tax forms: Form 8949 for capital gains and losses, Form 6781 for Section 1256 capital gains and losses using 60/40 treatment and Form 4797 Part II ordinary gain or loss for Section 475 trades. It’s hard for the IRS to decipher TTS items from investments on an individual tax return. Sole proprietors should use a well-crafted tax return footnote to explain the correlation of a TTS Schedule C with the other tax forms for trading gains and losses.

A partnership (or S-Corp) helps segregate investment positions from TTS/Section 475 trading positions. If you trade substantially-identical positions that you also invest in, it could invite the IRS to play havoc with the reclassification of TTS vs. investment positions. Using a TTS company prevents the IRS from reclassifying TTS positions out of Section 475 ordinary loss treatment into a capital loss limitation on investment positions. And, it prevents the IRS from reclassifying unrealized long-term capital gains on investment positions into TTS/475 MTM ordinary income on TTS positions. Traders cannot use portfolio margining between an entity and an individual account, so they carefully weigh the use of portfolio margining vs. Section 475.

S-Corps
Taxpayers cannot directly create an S-Corp; instead, it’s a tax election. Organize an LLC or incorporate a corporation, and the entity has the option to file an IRS Form 2553 (Election by a Small Business Corporation) within 75 days of inception. Alternatively, in a subsequent year, the S-Corp election is due by March 15. All the owners must be U.S. residents. Most states accept the federal S-Corp election, although some states including but not limited to New York and New Jersey require a separate state election. There is IRS relief for late S-Corp elections; however, you had to have the intention of making the S-Corp election on a timely basis.

New S-Corps (and partnerships) can elect Section 475 within 75 days of inception.

Unlike a partnership, an S-Corp doesn’t require two or more owners. An unmarried trader can form a single-member LLC to elect S-Corp status. Otherwise, a single-member LLC is a “disregarded entity” (a “tax nothing” in the eyes of the IRS), which takes you back to using sole proprietor status on a Schedule C.

The essential tax benefit of an S-Corp is to arrange tax deductions for health insurance premiums and a high-deductible retirement plan contribution through officer compensation.

Sole proprietors and partnerships cannot achieve these employee-benefit deductions in connection with trading income. A Schedule C cannot pay the owner wages, and partnerships should use “guaranteed payments” instead of salaries. Partnership expenses flow through, including a guaranteed payment, creating negative self-employment income (SEI). That makes a health insurance and retirement plan deduction challenging to achieve for a TTS partnership. Conversely, S-Corps don’t pass through negative SEI, and the employee benefit deductions work tax efficiently.

S-Corp health insurance premiums
TTS traders with significant self-employed health insurance (HI) premiums should consider an S-Corp to arrange a tax deduction through officer compensation; otherwise, they cannot deduct HI.

Not everyone needs a health insurance deduction, but if you do, crunch the numbers. An S-Corp is worthwhile if the HI tax deduction is meaningful, and the tax savings exceed the entity costs of formation and maintenance. A retirement plan deduction adds icing on the cake.

Examples: An unmarried futures trader living in a tax-free state might be in the lowest two tax brackets of 10% and 12%, after taking the standard deduction. With 60/40 treatment on Section 1256 contracts, her blended tax rate is 4% and 4.8%. If her HI deduction is $3,600, then the tax savings is $173. That’s far less than the cost of maintaining an S-Corp. A payroll service provider might cost $600 per year.

On the other hand, a married securities trader in a high-tax state might have a $24,000 HI deduction for family coverage, and with a 40% combined federal and state tax bracket, the tax savings for the HI deduction is $9,600. An S-Corp is a good idea for this trader.

The health insurance deduction is complicated for officer/owners: Add health insurance premiums paid by the entity or individually during the entity period to wages in box one on the officer/owner’s W-2. The health insurance amount in salary is not subject to payroll taxes, so omit this amount from Social Security wages in box 3, and Medicare wages in box five. The officer deducts health insurance premiums as an adjusted gross income (AGI) deduction on his Form 1040 personal tax return. The taxpayer deducts non-owner employees’ health insurance on the S-Corp tax return directly as “insurance expense.”

S-Corp retirement plan contributions
Taxpayers need self-employment income (SEI) to make and deduct retirement plan contributions; however, trading income is not SEI. (The exception is a full-fledged dealer/member of an options or futures exchange, trading Section 1256 contracts on that exchange.) There are tax costs and benefits to SEI: It triggers SE tax but also unlocks a HI and retirement plan deduction. SE tax is the same as payroll tax (FICA and Medicare), which I explain below.

A TTS trader uses an S-Corp to pay officer compensation for these employee benefit deductions. The trader is in control of how much to run through payroll, picking an amount to maximize employee benefit deductions but not to pay too much in the payroll tax.

You should fund retirement plan contributions from net income, not losses. It’s best to wait on the execution of an annual paycheck until early December when there is transparency for the year. A trader should not have a base salary throughout the year. Some traders make money during the year, only to lose it before year-end.

If you have sufficient trading profits by Q4, consider establishing a Solo 401(k) retirement plan before year-end. It’s a defined contribution plan; start with the 100% deductible elective deferral (ED; $19,000 for 2019) and pay it through payroll since it’s reported on the annual W-2. Add the ED to Social Security wages and Medicare wages on the W-2 but not taxable wages in box 1, as that is where the tax benefit (deduction) is. The gross wage ED component is subject to payroll taxes, and the S-Corp tax return has a deduction for gross wages. Taxpayers 50 years and older have a “catch up provision” of $6,000, raising the ED limit to $25,000 per year.

If you have large trading gains, consider increasing payroll in December for a performance-based bonus to unlock a 25% deductible Solo 401(k) profit-sharing plan (PSP) contribution that you don’t have to pay into the retirement plan until the due date of the S-Corp tax return (including extensions by Sept. 15). The maximum PSP amount is $37,000. The total limit for a Solo 401(k) is $62,000 ($19,000 ED, $6,000 catch-up ED, and $37,000 PSP). The S-Corp tax return deducts the PSP.

A “traditional” retirement plan is tax deductible, and the related wages are subject to a payroll tax, which includes 12.4% FICA up to the SSA base of $132,900 for 2019, plus 2.9% Medicare tax without a base limit. If the trader is in a high tax bracket, then the income tax savings can well exceed the payroll tax cost, which is also 50% deductible. Crunch the numbers in December for year-end tax planning and consider whether you can afford to save this cash flow until retirement, starting at age 59½ for required minimum distributions.

As an example: Assume an unmarried trader, age 51, has S-Corp net trading income of approximately $225,000 and individual taxable income of $200,000. That puts her in a 32% marginal federal tax bracket, and she lives in a tax-free state. On officer compensation of $25,000, she contributes the maximum Solo 401(k) ED of $25,000, saving $8,000 in federal income taxes. Her payroll tax on $25,000 wages is $3,825, which is 50% tax deductible, so it generates additional income tax savings of $612. She has federal unemployment insurance (FUI) of $50 and is exempt from state workmen’s compensation insurance. Her net overall tax savings is $4,737. She will enjoy tax-free compounding of growth in the retirement plan until she must begin taking required minimum distributions by age 70½, which is taxable income at ordinary rates.

Consider a Roth Solo 401(k) contribution in the years when you can skip an income tax deduction. Roth plans are permanently tax-free for growth and contributions. Early withdrawals can trigger a 10% excise tax penalty. If you have another job with annual wages over the SSA base, then TTS S-Corp wages will convert new FICA to a federal tax credit, since the IRS does not double-charge FICA on a Form 1040. This credit gives a nice incentive to consider a Roth plan.

S-Corp payroll
To arrange employee benefits including health insurance and retirement plan deductions through an S-Corp, you’ll need to pay officer compensation through a formal payroll before year-end. You’ll likely need to engage a payroll service provider for payroll tax compliance. (Our firm works with a dedicated team at Paychex for a price of approximately $600 per year.) If you don’t need employee benefits in a given tax year, you can skip paying officer compensation for that year. IRS “reasonable compensation” rules for S-Corps probably don’t apply to traders since the S-Corp has unearned income. However, the IRS could take the position that reasonable compensation is required in all cases. Once you begin a payroll, you must continue to file payroll tax returns quarterly and annually, even if they are zero returns due to no salary in any given period.

A payroll service includes quarterly payroll tax returns (Form 941), the annual payroll tax return (Form 940), state payroll tax returns and federal unemployment insurance with FUI tax of under $50 for the owner/trader. In most states, the trader/owner is exempt from state unemployment insurance and state workmen’s compensation. The payroll service provider also prepares the W-3s and W-2s

One benefit is you can withhold taxes from payroll in December and have them attributed to being made throughout the year. Take advantage of this tax loophole to reduce quarterly estimated tax payments during the year. Benefit from hindsight and use of the cash flow.

Avoid wash sales with an entity
Permanent wash-sale losses between individual taxable accounts and IRAs and deferred wash-sale losses inside and between taxable accounts significantly impact active investors.

Trading in an entity account might help avoid these problems. The entity is separate from the individual and IRA accounts for purposes of wash sales since it is a different taxpayer. The IRS is entitled to apply related party transaction rules (Section 267) if the entity purposely tries to avoid wash sales with the owner’s accounts. If the company qualifies for TTS, it can consider a Section 475 MTM election exempting it from wash sales (on business positions, not investment positions).

Trade accounting for securities is more comfortable with a new entity since there are no opening-year wash-sale loss adjustments to reverse from the prior year-end, which is sometimes difficult to determine.

Miscellaneous
S-Corps are more formal than partnerships. For example, a TTS trader needs to use an accountable reimbursement plan before year-end for reimbursing the officer’s business expenses. A partnership is less formal; it can use unreimbursed partnership expenses (UPE).

Form the pass-through entity in your state of residence since it passes income to that state, anyway. Don’t be fooled by asset-protection salesman promoting entity formation in tax-free jurisdictions. You live, work, and trade in your home state.

C-Corps are not ideal for traders since the IRS might charge a 20% accumulated earnings tax on top of the 21% flat tax. It’s hard for a trader to have a war chest plan to justify retaining earnings and profits (E&P). There’s double state taxation to consider, too. (See Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide.)

Some brokers charge higher professional rates for data feed fees on entity accounts, even though you don’t have investors. A sole proprietor individual account pays non-professional rates, which can save $125 or more per month depending on how many data vendors you have. Inquire about this issue with your brokers.

Qualifying for trader tax status
Many traders and tax advisers don’t fully comprehend TTS, including how to use it properly. Rather than deal with its many nuances, they skip TTS and overlook or miss the 475-election deadline. It’s sad to explain to new clients why they cannot deduct trading expenses and losses.

TTS is the linchpin for the related tax advantages of using an entity. Before forming a company, determine if you qualify for it. An entity does not deliver business expense treatment or automatically provide an opportunity for employee benefits. The organization must be eligible for TTS; otherwise, it’s an investment company like the majority of hedge funds.

To be eligible for claiming TTS, a trader needs approximately four total trades or more per day, trade executions on close to four days per week, with more than 15 total trades per week, 60 trades per month, and 720 trades per year (annualized), per the Poppe court. Average holding periods must be under 31 days per the Endicott court. There are several other factors including having material account size ($25,000 for pattern day trader designation on securities and $15,000 for other instruments), spending over four hours per day, having the intention to run a business to make a living, having trading computers and multiple monitors, and a dedicated home office.

If you have segregated investment positions, it’s better to house your TTS trading in a separate entity. Otherwise, the IRS might drag investment positions into the TTS analysis, which can lengthen holding periods over the 31-day requirement.

Investment vs. TTS business expenses
TCJA suspended all investment fees and costs except for two: investment-interest expense limited to investment income, and stock borrow fees, which are considered “other itemized deductions.” Many traders will use the roughly doubled standard deduction instead of itemized deductions, especially considering the SALT itemized deduction cap of $10,000. The 2019 standard deduction is $12,200 single and $24,400 married.

Trading commissions are not separate expenses; the broker deducts them from sales proceeds and adds them to cost-basis for purchases. Commissions are therefore part of trading gain or loss. With net capital gains, commissions are equivalent to a tax deduction; however, with a capital loss limitation, commissions are part of a capital loss carryover. This can’t be changed even with TTS.

TTS business expenses include expensing of computers, monitors, and mobile devices, home-office expenses if exclusively used for business, post-TTS commencement education costs, Section 195 startup costs including pre-business education going six months back, and Section 248 organization expenses. Additional expenses include data and market information services, subscriptions, charting and other software, platform fees, self-created algorithms and automated trading systems, margin interest, stock borrow fees, coaches, mentors, chatrooms, supplies, seminars, travel, meals, professional expenses including tax advice, and more.

A typical TTS trader has annual business expenses ranging between $5,000 and $25,000 per year. Expect higher costs if there are significant stock borrow fees, margin interest expenses, an outside office, staff, or using a Bloomberg terminal. Forex traders tend to have few costs.

With a TTS S-Corp, the health insurance deduction could range from a few thousand to $24,000 or more per year depending on if the trader is single, married, and has children with family coverage. It could be low with an Obamacare subsidy. A Solo 401(k) retirement plan deduction could be up to $62,000 per year per working spouse.

If you want an entity for 2019, you should set it up by the end of Q3. Come November, the window of opportunity closes as two months is too short a period for TTS and to build up employee benefits. In that case, form it in December to be ready for use Jan. 1, 2020.

Consider a 45-minute consultation to review eligibility for TTS, an entity formation plan, Section 475 election, and more. If an entity is a good idea for you, then consider our entity formation service. We also offer our tax compliance service, starting with year-end planning in December.

GNM CPAs Darren Neuschwander, and Adam Manning contributed to this blog post.

For more in-depth information on entities for traders, health insurance, retirement plans, trader tax status, Section 475, QBI and other issues discussed in this blog post, see Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide.

Attend our upcoming Webinars on this subject and watch the recording after.

A Rationale For Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders

June 4, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

There are two opposing arguments made by tax professionals for applying Section 199A qualified business income (QBI) treatment on 2018 tax returns for traders with trader tax status (TTS).

Those for say Section 199A applies because Section 864(b)(2) is limited to nonresident traders only. U.S. resident TTS traders meet the requirements of Section 864(c)(3) “Other income from sources within United States.” As a result, a U.S. resident TTS trader has effectively connected income (ECI) and therefore, QBI. In this blog post, I refer to this stance as the affirmative or positive rationale.

Those against say Section 199A does not apply to U.S. resident TTS traders because Section 864(b)(2) applies to all traders. This scenario means that “trading for taxpayer’s own account” does not constitute ECI and therefore, QBI does not apply. In this blog post, I refer to this stance as the contrary or negative argument.

Here is what we know. Section 199A labeled TTS trading a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB). The contrary argument would lead to conflict: Why would 199A recognize TTS trading as an SSTB, if 864(b)(2) denied a QBI deduction to U.S. resident TTS traders? With the positive rationale, QBI includes TTS trading business expenses and Section 475 ordinary income/loss. QBI expressly excludes capital gains/losses, interest and dividend income, and forex and swap contract ordinary income/loss. A taxable income threshold, phase-in range, and income cap apply to SSTBs, which leads to some high-income taxpayers not receiving a 20% QBI deduction. (The QBI deduction rules are complex and beyond the scope of this blog post.)

Many traders filed 2018 tax extensions on March 15 (entities) and April 15 (individuals). Their tax preparers are waiting to resolve uncertainty over this issue before the tax return deadlines of Sept. 16, 2019, for partnerships and S-Corps and Oct. 15, 2019, for individual sole proprietorships.

A positive rationale to apply 199A to U.S. resident TTS traders
If you search the 199A final regs, you will find mention of 864(c) beneath the heading “Interaction of Sections 875(1) and 199A.” Section 875(1) states “a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation shall be considered as being engaged in a trade or business within the United States if the partnership of which such individual or corporation is a member is so engaged.”

199A regs state, “Section 199A(c)(3)(A)(i) provides that for purposes of determining QBI, the term qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss means items of income, gain, deduction and loss to the extent such items are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864(c), determined by substituting ‘qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A’ for ‘nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation’ or for ‘a foreign corporation’ each place it appears).”

A U.S. resident TTS trader meets the definition of Section 864(c)(3) “Other income from sources within United States.”

“All income, gain, or loss from sources within the United States (other than income, gain, or loss to which paragraph (2) applies) shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.”

A U.S. resident TTS trader has Section 162 trade or business expenses. It’s consistent with 199A stating a TTS trading activity is an SSTB.

A U.S. resident TTS trader also meets the definition of 864(c)(2) “Periodical, etc., income from sources within United States—factors.”

“In determining whether income from sources within the United States of the types described in section 871(a)(1), section 871(h) , section 881(a), or section 881(c), or whether gain or loss from sources within the United States from the sale or exchange of capital assets, is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, the factors taken into account shall include whether—

(A) The income, gain, or loss is derived from assets used in or held for use in the conduct of such trade or business, or

(B) The activities of such trade or business were a material factor in the realization of the income, gain, or loss. In determining whether an asset is used in or held for use in the conduct of such trade or business or whether the activities of such trade or business were a material factor in realizing an item of income, gain, or loss, due regard shall be given to whether or not such asset or such income, gain, or loss was accounted for through such trade or business.”

A U.S. resident TTS trading business uses the capital for the sale of capital assets to derive its income, and money is a material factor.

Section 871(a)(2) provides that a nonresident individual residing in the U.S. for more than 183 days per year is subject to a 30% tax on U.S.-source capital gains. (A tax treaty may provide relief.)

Some accountants think that Section 864(b)(2) prevents all traders, U.S. residents, and nonresidents, from using QBI treatment.

“Section 864(b) – the term a “trade or business within the U.S.” does not include:

Section 864(b)(1) – Performance of personal services for foreign employer.

Section 864(b)(2) – Trading in securities or commodities.

(A): Stocks and securities.
(i)   In general. Trading in stocks or securities through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other independent agent.
(ii)   Trading for taxpayer’s own account. Trading in stocks or securities for the taxpayer’s own account, whether by the taxpayer or his employees or through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other agent, and whether or not any such employee or agent has discretionary authority to make decisions in effecting the transactions. This clause shall not apply in the case of a dealer in stocks or securities.
(C) Limitation. Subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i) (for commodities) shall apply only if, at no time during the taxable year, the taxpayer has an office or other fixed place of business in the United States through which or by the direction of which the transactions in stocks or securities, or in commodities, as the case may be, are effected.”

The (C) Limitation relates to (i) nonresident investors engaging a U.S. broker. This exception applies if the nonresident does not have an office in the U.S. The exemption does not apply to (ii) “trading for taxpayer’s own account.”

In the 1.864-2 reg, there are several examples under “trading for taxpayer’s own account,” and all of the cases are for nonresident individuals and nonresident partnerships. If you read 864(b)(2)(A)(ii) as applying to nonresidents only, then it supports the affirmative rationale for using 199A on U.S. resident TTS traders.

Reg § 1.864-2(a) states:

“(a) In general. As used in part I (section 861 and following) and part II (section 871 and following), subchapter N, chapter 1 of the Code, and chapter 3 (section 1441 and following) of the Code, and the regulations thereunder, the term “engaged in trade or business within the United States” does not include the activities described in paragraphs (c) (trading in stocks or securities) and (d) (trading in commodities) of this section, but includes the performance of personal services within the United States at any time within the taxable year except to the extent otherwise provided in this section.”

The code sections in this heading are all for nonresidents:
861 – Income from sources within the United States
871 – Tax on nonresident alien individuals
Subchapter N – Tax based on income from sources within or without the United States
Chapter 3 – Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations
1441: Withholding and reporting requirements for payments to a foreign person

Reg § 1.864-2(c) is for “trading in stocks or securities,” and (d) is for “trading in commodities.” Those sections discuss nonresident individuals and nonresident partnerships with U.S. brokerage accounts and explain that no matter how significant the volume of trades, that a nonresident trader does not have ECI in the U.S. This reg displays several examples, and all of them are for nonresidents. Again, this reg and related code Section 864(b)(2) is for nonresident traders only. A U.S. resident TTS trader is covered in Section 864(c), not in Section 864(b)(2).

The essential point is that the 199A regs do not state to “substitute qualified trade or business for nonresident or foreign” in Section 864(b) – so that code section remains applicable to nonresident traders only. The 199A regs required this substitution for 864(c) only.

Tax attorney Johnny Lyle J.D. weighs in:

“To read IRC Section 864(b) into the equation, you have to determine that the language ‘In the case of a qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A) engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year…’ requires you to determine ‘qualified trade or business under Section 199A,’ but then turn around and determine ‘trade or business within the United States’ under IRC Section 864(b),” Lyle said.

Further, Treasury Regulation Section 1.864-4, titled “U.S. source income effectively connected with U.S. business” states: “This section applies only to a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States at some time during a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1966, and to the income, gain, or loss of such person from sources within the United States.”

Treasury Regulation Section 1.864-2, titled “Trade or business within the United States” uses only nonresident aliens and foreign corporations in its examples.

Lyle said two arguments could be made regarding Congress using the language specifically referencing IRC Section 864(c) in IRC Section 199A. First, if Congress wanted to incorporate Section 864(b) into the equation, it would have said effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864) without reference to 864(c). Second, under the Treasury Regulations, 864(b) only applies to nonresident aliens. Therefore, the restriction in 864(b)(2)(A)(ii) would only apply to nonresident aliens, and a taxpayer who was a day trader, but not a nonresident alien, would not be excluded from ECI.

“If Congress intended to exclude all trader income, it would have done so under IRC Section 199A(c)(3)(B) rather than a more roundabout, back door way, rendering IRC Section 199A(d)(2)(B) meaningless,” Lyle said. “If Congress wanted to specifically incorporate Section 864(b), it would have worded it this way: …effectively connected (within the meaning of section 864(c)) with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864(b)), determined by substituting ‘qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A)’ for ‘nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation’ or for ‘a foreign corporation’ each place it appears.”

It gives me some pause that some big-four accountants prepared a few 2018 hedge fund partnership K-1s without applying 199A tax treatment. Their K-1 notes indicated reliance on Sections 864(c) and or 864(b) to skip the application of 199A. When we asked some big-four tax partners for clarification, they said they were not wedded to that position. Did these accountants take an easy way out, by reading Section 864(b)(2) out of context? The hedge fund investors would have been hurt with QBI treatment since they would have QBI losses from TTS trading business expenses. The hedge fund had capital gains, which QBI excludes. The hedge fund did not elect Section 475 ordinary income or loss, which QBI includes.

On the other side of the debate, I’ve seen some K-1s from proprietary trading firms, and all of those K-1s did report 199A information. They reported QBI income since they elected Section 475 on securities. I asked their tax preparers about it, and they said 864(b)(2) applies to foreign partnerships, not these U.S. trading partnerships.

I spoke with a tax attorney in IRS Office of Chief Counsel listed on the Section 199A regs, and he thought the positive rationale makes sense. He even accommodated my request to add Section 475 by name to inclusion in QBI in the final 199A regs. The IRS attorney did not raise Section 864(c) or 864(b)(2) as being a problem for U.S. resident TTS traders.

It’s time to complete 2018 tax returns even with remaining uncertainty. I suggest that U.S. resident TTS traders, living, working, and trading in the U.S. consider applying 199A to their trading business. Consult your tax advisor.

CPAs Darren Neuschwander and Adam Manning, and tax attorney Johnny Lyle contributed to this blog post.

See my prior blog posts on 199A for traders at https://greentradertax.com/uncertainty-about-using-qbi-tax-treatment-for-traders/

Trading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages

May 30, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

There are various types of financial products with different tax treatments, and Section 1256 contracts have the best overall tax advantages.

Tax treatment of financial products affects investors, traders, and hedge funds. But sadly, many tax preparers overlook essential differences in tax treatment for these groups, resulting in overpayments. Education is key.

It’s important to distinguish between securities vs. Section 1256 contracts with lower 60/40 capital gains rates vs. other types of financial products like forex or swaps with ordinary income or loss treatment. Plus, there are various elections available to change tax treatment.

Capital gains vs. ordinary income
Most financial instruments — including securities, Section 1256 contracts, options, ETFs, ETNs, indexes, precious metals, and cryptocurrencies held as a capital asset — are subject to capital gains treatment. However, some of these financial products qualify as Section 1256 contracts with lower 60/40 capital gains rates.

By default, forex contracts and swap contracts are subject to ordinary gain or loss treatment. The distinction between ordinary and capital gains treatment makes a big difference. The capital-loss limitation is a problem for traders and investors who may have trouble using up large capital-loss carryovers in subsequent tax years. There is a Section 1256 loss carryback election.

Traders with trader tax status (TTS) and a Section 475 MTM election have business ordinary-loss treatment, which is more likely to generate tax savings or refunds faster than capital loss carryovers.

60/40 capital gains rates
Section 1256 contracts have lower 60/40 tax rates, meaning 60% (including day trades) are taxed at the lower long-term capital gains rate, and 40% are taxed at the short-term rate, which is the ordinary tax rate.

At the maximum tax brackets for 2018 and 2019, the top Section 1256 contract tax rate is 26.8% —10.2% lower than the highest ordinary rate of 37%. Section 1256 tax rates are 4.2% to 12% lower vs. ordinary rates depending on which tax bracket applies.

For example: Make $100,000 in 1256 contracts in the 35% ordinary bracket, and save $12,000 (12%) with 60/40 rates.

For 2018 and 2019, there is meaningful tax rate reduction throughout the brackets, including zero long-term rates in the 10% and 12% ordinary brackets.

See Section 1256 tax rates vs. ordinary rates (2018 & 2019 rates). State tax rates apply; they do not include a long-term rate.

Trading income is not self-employment income (SEI) for triggering SE tax (FICA and Medicare). Traders who are full members of a futures or options exchange are an exception here; they have self-employment income under Section 1402(i) on their exchange-generated trading gains reported on Form 6781.

List of 1256 contracts

U.S. futures contracts:
- Regulated futures contracts (RFCs) on a qualified board or exchange (QBE).
- U.S. RFCs on commodities (food, energies, and metals), stock indexes, financials (U.S. Treasuries and bonds), currencies, and more.
- Options on U.S. futures (RFCs).
- Foreign futures with CFTC and IRS approval. (Only a handful of exchanges currently have this IRS revenue ruling, including Eurex, LIFFE, ICE Futures Europe, and ICE Futures Canada, see blog post).

Broad-based indexes:
- Broad-based indexes are stock index futures made up of 10 or more underlying securities.
- Options on broad-based indexes are also 1256 contracts.
- Broad-based indexes are taxed differently from exchange-traded funds (ETFs), which are securities.
- The S&P 500 Index (CBOE: SPX) is listed on a commodities exchange, taxed as a Section 1256 contract.
- The SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSEARCA: SPY) is listed on a securities exchange, taxed as a security.

Other Section 1256 contracts:
- Options on commodities/futures ETFs taxed as publicly traded partnerships. (Options on securities ETFs are securities.)
- CBOE-listed options on volatility ETNs structured as prepaid forward contracts (the ETN itself is not Section 1256).
- Non-equity options. (Be careful in using this catchall.)
- Forex forward contracts on major currencies, if the taxpayer filed a Section 988 opt-out election to use Section 1256(g) (we make a case for forex spot in major currencies, too).
- Forex OTC options (Wright tax court case).

Mark-to-market accounting
Section 1256 contracts use mark-to-market (MTM) accounting daily. For income tax purposes, MTM means gain/loss calculations report both realized activity from throughout the year, and unrealized gains and losses on open trading positions at year-end. The broker 1099-B also reverses unrealized amounts from the prior year.

With MTM, wash sale (WS) loss adjustments are a moot point; hence, WS apply to securities, only, not 1256 contracts. With MTM, traders don’t have to do “tax loss selling” at year-end, since they will report the unrealized losses, anyway. Many traders have small or no open positions on Section 1256 contracts at year-end.

It might be hard to find an accurate MTM price for valuing long-term options (1256 contracts) at year-end. The broker might use one price on the December monthly statement and a significantly different value on the 1099-B for calculating unrealized gains and losses. Brokers use Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) for FMV, which might be from the last trade in the marketplace. That trade might not indicate the actual FMV. Some taxpayers use Black-Scholes modeling to determine a more accurate FMV.

Tax reporting
With Section 1256 MTM and summary reporting, brokers can issue simple one-page 1099-Bs reporting “aggregate profit or loss on contracts” after taking into account realized and unrealized gains and losses.

That amount is reported on Form 6781 Part I, which breaks it down to the 60/40 split and then moves those amounts to Schedule D capital gains and losses. See a 2019 Form 1099-B lines 8 – 11 for 1256 contract reporting.

One might expect that broker-issued 1099-Bs would handle all tax treatment issues, but for some financial products, they do not. Some brokers categorize CBOE-listed options on volatility ETNs, and ETFs structured as publicly traded partnerships as securities, but there is substantial authority to treat these CBOE-listed options as “non-equity options” included in Section 1256. (Options on securities ETFs are taxed as securities.) The most complicated issue for 1099-Bs is wash sale loss adjustments on securities.

Section 1256 traders should also learn about the “mixed straddle election” and “hedging rules” in Section 1256(d) and (e), and as discussed on Form 6781. Offsetting positions between Section 1256 contracts and securities can generate tax complications under certain circumstances involving the hedging rule. The IRS is concerned about traders reporting Section 1256 MTM unrealized losses and deferring unrealized gains on offsetting securities positions, so there are rules intended to prevent this.

Election to carryback Section 1256 losses
On Form 6781, select the “net section 1256 contracts loss election” in box D. Enter, but don’t deduct the loss on the current tax return. Remove the loss from Form 6781 on line 6. Apply the Section 1256 loss on amended tax return filings against Section 1256 gains only. (Form 1045 is preferable; otherwise, use Form 1040X.) It’s a three-year carryback, and unused amounts are then carried forward. It’s the only time traders can carryback a tax loss. TCJA repealed NOL carrybacks starting in 2018.

Section 475 election
Traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) are entitled to file a timely election for Section 475 ordinary gain or loss treatment on securities and or commodities (including Section 1256 contracts). Generally, Section 475 is smart for securities traders, but not most 1256 contract traders. Ordinary losses are usually better than capital losses; however, ordinary income rates are worse than 60/40 capital gains rates.

TCJA introduced a new Section 199A “qualified business income” (QBI) deduction. Trading is a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB) subject to an income threshold, phase-in, and cap on the QBI deduction. QBI includes Section 475 ordinary income/loss, and trading business expenses. However, QBI excludes capital gains, 60/40 capital gains, portfolio income, and Section 988 and swap ordinary income. There is uncertainty about this QBI application to traders based on Section 864(b). It is better to use 60/40 capital gains rates.

Watch our Webinar recordingTrading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages

Tax Extensions: 12 Tips To Save You Money

March 12, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Individual tax returns for 2018 are due April 15, 2019, however, most active traders aren’t ready to file on time. Some brokers issue corrected 1099Bs right up to the deadline, or even beyond. Many partnerships and S-Corps file extensions by March 15, 2019, and don’t issue Schedule K-1s to partners until after April 15. Many securities traders struggle with accounting for wash sale loss adjustments.

The new tax law (TCJA) raises additional complications on 2018 tax returns. There is uncertainty over QBI tax treatment for traders, so we suggest traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) file extensions. (See Uncertainty About Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders.)

The good news is traders don’t have to rush completion of their tax returns by April 15. They should take advantage of a simple one-page automatic extension along with payment of taxes owed to the IRS and state. Most active traders file extensions, and it’s helpful to them on many fronts.

Tip 1: Get a six-month extension of time
Request an automatic six-month extension of time to file individual federal and state income tax returns by Oct. 15, 2019. Form 4868 instructions point out how easy it is to get this automatic extension — no reason is required. It’s an extension of time to file a complete tax return, not an extension of time to pay taxes owed. Estimate and report what you think you owe for 2018 based on your tax information received.

Tip 2: Avoid penalties from the IRS and state for being late
Learn how IRS and state late-filing and late-payment penalties apply so you can avoid or reduce them to your satisfaction. 2018 Form 4868 (Application for Automatic Extension of Time To File U.S. Individual Income Tax Return) page two states:

Late Payment Penalty: The late payment penalty is usually ½ of 1% of any tax (other than estimated tax) not paid by the regular due date of your return, which is April 15, 2019, for calendar year filers (April 17, 2019, if you live in Maine or Massachusetts). It’s charged for each month or part of a month the tax is unpaid. The maximum penalty is 25%. The late payment penalty won’t be charged if you can show reasonable cause for not paying on time. Attach a statement to your return fully explaining the reason. Don’t attach the statement to Form 4868. You’re considered to have reasonable cause for the period covered by this automatic extension if both of the following requirements have been met. 1. At least 90% of the total tax on your 2018 return is paid on or before the regular due date of your return through withholding, estimated tax payments, or payments made with Form 4868. 2. The remaining balance is paid with your return.

Late Filing Penalty: A late filing penalty is usually charged if your return is filed after the due date (including extensions). The penalty is usually 5% of the amount due for each month or part of a month your return is late. The maximum penalty is 25%. If your return is more than 60 days late, the minimum penalty is $210 (adjusted for inflation) or the balance of the tax due on your return, whichever is smaller. You might not owe the penalty if you have a reasonable explanation for filing late. Attach a statement to your return fully explaining your reason for filing late. Don’t attach the statement to Form 4868.”

Tip 3: File an automatic extension even if you cannot pay
Even if you can’t pay what you estimate you owe, make sure to file the automatic extension form on time by April 15, 2019. It should help avoid the late-filing penalty, which is ten times more than the late-payment penalty. If you can’t pay in full, you should file your tax return or extension and pay as much as you can.

An example of late-payment and late-filing penalties: Assume your 2018 tax liability estimate is $50,000. Suppose you file an extension by April 15, 2019, but cannot pay any of your tax balance due. You file your actual tax return on the extended due date of Oct. 15, 2019, with full payment. A late-payment penalty applies because you did not pay 90% of your tax liability on April 15, 2019. The late-payment penalty is $1,500 (six months late x 0.5% per month x $50,000). Some traders view a late-payment penalty like a 6% margin loan, and it’s not tax-deductible.

By simply filing the extension on time in the above example, you avoided a late-filing penalty of $11,250 (six months late x 5% per month [25% maximum], less late-payment penalty factor of 2.5% = 22.5%; 22.5% x $50,000 = $11,250). Interest is also charged on taxes paid after April 15, 2019.

If you don’t expect to owe 2018 taxes by April 15, 2019, it’s easy to prepare an extension with no balance due. Make sure to file it on time to avoid a minimum penalty just in case you were wrong and do owe taxes for 2018.

Tip 4: Add a payment cushion for Q1 2019 estimated taxes due
Traders with 2019 year-to-date trading gains and significant tax liability in the past year should consider making quarterly estimated tax payments this year to avoid underestimated tax penalties. The IRS increased AFR interest rates in 2018 and 2019.

I recommend the following strategy for traders and business owners: Overpay your 2018 tax extension on April 15, 2019, and plan to apply an overpayment credit toward Q1 2019 estimated taxes. Most traders don’t make estimated tax payments until Q3 and or Q4 when they have more precise trading results. Why pay estimated taxes for Q1 and Q2 if you incur substantial trading losses later in the year?

It’s a better idea to pay an extra amount for the extension to set yourself up for three good choices: A cushion on 2018 if you underestimated your taxes, an overpayment credit toward 2019 taxes, or a tax refund for 2018 if no 2019 estimated taxes are due.

Tip 5: Consider a 2019 Section 475 MTM election
Traders eligible for trader tax status should consider attaching a 2019 Section 475 election statement to their 2018 tax return or extension. These are due by April 15, 2019, for individuals and corporations and March 15 for partnerships and S-Corps. Section 475 turns capital gains and losses into ordinary gains and losses, thereby avoiding the capital-loss limitation and wash-sale loss adjustments on securities (i.e., tax-loss insurance).

TTS traders might also derive an essential tax benefit from Section 475 ordinary income: TCJA’s 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction. However, QBI treatment for traders is uncertain at this time. (Read Traders Elect Section 475 For Massive Tax Savings.)

Tip 6: File when it’s more convenient for you
Sophisticated and wealthy taxpayers know the “real” tax deadline is Oct. 15, 2019, for individuals and Sept. 16, 2019, for pass-through entities, including partnership and S-Corp tax returns. Pass-through entities file tax extensions by March 15, 2019. (See March 15 Is Tax Deadline For S-Corp And Partnership Extensions And Elections.)

You don’t have to wait until the last few days of the extension period like most wealthy taxpayers. Try to file your tax return in the summer months.

Tip 7: Be conservative with tax payments
I’ve always advised clients to be aggressive but legal with tax-return filings and look conservative with cash (tax money). Impress the IRS with your patience on overpayment credits and demonstrate you’re not hungry and perhaps overly aggressive to generate tax refunds. It’s a wise strategy for traders to apply overpayment credits toward estimated taxes owed on current-year trading income. You want to look like you’re going to be successful in the current tax year.

The additional time helps build tax positions like qualification for trader tax status in 2018 and 2019. It may open opportunities for new ideas on tax savings. A rushed return does not.

Tip 8: Get more time to fund qualified retirement plans
The extension also pushes back the deadline for paying money into qualified retirement plans including a Solo 401(k), SEP IRA and defined benefit plan. The deadline for 2018 IRA contributions is April 15, 2019.

Tip 9: Respect the policies of your accountants
Your accountant can prepare extension forms quickly for a nominal additional cost related to that job. There are no fees from the IRS or state for filing extensions. Be sure to give your accountant tax information received and estimates for missing data.

Your accountant begins your tax compliance (preparation) engagement, and he or she cuts it off when seeing a solid draft to use for extension filing purposes. Your accountant will wait for final tax information to arrive after April 15, 2019. Think of the extension as a half-time break. It’s not procrastination; accountants want tax returns finished.

Please don’t overwhelm your tax preparer the last few weeks and days before April 15 with minor details in a rush to file a complete tax return. Accounting firms with high standards of quality have internal deadlines for receiving tax information for completing tax returns. It’s unwise to pressure your accountant, which could lead to mistakes or oversights in a rush to file a complete return at the last minute. That doesn’t serve anyone well.

Tip 10: Securities traders should focus on trade accounting
It doesn’t matter if your capital loss is $50,000 or $75,000 at extension time: Either way, you’ll be reporting a capital loss limitation of $3,000 against other income. In this case, don’t get bogged down with trade accounting and reconciliation with Form 1099Bs until after April 15. The capital loss carryover impacts your decision to elect Section 475 MTM for 2019 by April 15, 2019, but an estimate is sufficient.

Consider wash-sale loss rules on securities: If you know these adjustments won’t change your $3,000 capital loss limitation, you can proceed with your extension filing. But if you suspect wash-sale loss adjustments could lead to reporting capital gains rather than losses, or if you aren’t sure of your capital gains amount, focus your efforts on trade accounting before April 15. (Consider our trade accounting service.) Try to do accounting work for year-to-date 2019; it also affects your decision-making on the 475 election.

Section 1256 contract traders can rely on the one-page 1099B showing aggregate profit or loss. Forex traders can depend on the broker’s online tax reports. Wash sales don’t apply to Section 1256 contracts and forex. Cryptocurrency traders should use coin trade accounting programs to generate Form 8949.

Tip 11: Don’t overlook state extensions and payments
Some states don’t require an automatic extension for overpaid returns; they accept the federal extension. If you owe state taxes, you need to file a state extension with payment. States tend to be less accommodating than the IRS in abating penalties, so it’s usually wise to cover your state taxes first if you’re short on cash. Check the extension rules in your state.

Tip 12: U.S. residents abroad should learn the particular rules
U.S. citizens or aliens residing overseas are allowed an automatic two-month extension until June 17, 2019, to file their tax return and pay any amount due without requesting an extension. (See Form 4868 page 2, and the IRS website.)

Darren Neuschwander CPA and Adam Manning CPA contributed to this blog post. 

March 15 Is Tax Deadline For S-Corp And Partnership Extensions And Elections

March 6, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

March 15, 2019, is the deadline for filing 2018 S-Corp and partnership tax returns, or extensions, 2019 S-Corp elections for existing entities, and 2019 Section 475 elections for a pass-through entity. Don’t miss any of these tax filings or elections; it could cost you.

2018 S-Corp and partnership tax extensions

Extensions are easy to prepare and file for S-Corps and partnerships since they pass through income and loss to the owner, usually an individual. Generally, pass-through entities are tax-filers, but not taxpayers. 2018 individual and calendar-year C-Corp tax returns or extensions, and Section 475 elections are due April 15, 2019. (See IRS Tax Calendars For 2019.)

For S-Corps and partnerships use Form 7004 (Application for Automatic Extension of Time To File Certain Business Income Tax, Information, and Other Returns). 2018 S-Corp and partnership extensions give six additional months to file a federal tax return, by Sep. 16, 2019.

Some states require a state extension filing, whereas others accept the federal extension. Some states have S-Corp franchise taxes, excise taxes, or minimum taxes, and payments are usually due with the extensions by March 15. LLCs filing as a partnership may have minimum taxes or annual reports due with the extension by March 15.

Late Filing Penalties: The IRS late filing penalty regime for S-Corps and partnerships is similar. The IRS assesses $210 for partnerships, $200 for S-Corps, per owner, per month, for a maximum of 12 months. Taxpayers may request penalty abatement based on reasonable cause after the IRS mails a penalty notice. Ignoring the extension deadline is not reasonable cause. There is also a $270 penalty for failure to furnish a Schedule K-1 to an owner on time, and the penalty is higher if intentionally disregarded. States assess penalties and interest, often based on payments due. (See more details about penalties and interest in Form 1065 and 1120S instructions.)

The new tax law TCJA’s Section 199A “qualified business income” (QBI) tax treatment might apply to TTS partnerships and S-Corps, whether they use Section 475 or not. TTS trading expenses are QBI losses. In my recent blog post, Uncertainty About Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders, I suggest filing extensions to have additional time for a resolution of this matter.

2018 S-Corp elections

Traders qualifying for trader tax status and interested in employee benefit plan deductions, including health insurance and retirement plan deductions, probably need an S-Corp. They should consider a 2019 S-Corp election for an existing trading entity, due by March 15, 2019, or form a new entity and file an S-Corp election within 75 days of inception. Most states accept the federal S-Corp election, but a few states do not; they require a separate S-Corp election filing by March 15. If you overlooked filing a 2018 S-Corp election by March 15, 2018, and intended to elect S-Corp tax treatment as of that date, you may qualify for IRS relief. (See Late Election Relief.) (Sole proprietor traders do not have self-employment income, which means they cannot have self-employed health insurance and retirement plan deductions. TTS partnerships face significant obstacles in achieving self-employment income.)

2019 Section 475 MTM elections for S-Corps and partnerships

Traders, eligible for trader tax status, should consider attaching a 2019 Section 475 election statement to their 2018 tax return or extension due by March 15, 2019, for partnerships and S-Corps, or by April 15, for individuals and C-corps. Section 475 turns capital gains and losses into ordinary gains and losses thereby avoiding the capital loss limitation and wash sale loss adjustments (tax loss insurance). There might also be benefits to 475 income per the new tax law (TCJA) “qualified business income” (QBI) deduction subject to taxable income limitations. However, QBI tax treatment for traders is uncertain at this time. (Read Traders Elect Section 475 For Massive Tax Savings.)

If a trader wants to revoke a prior year Section 475 election, a revocation election statement is due by March 15, 2019. (See New IRS Rules Allow Free And Easy Section 475 Revocation.)

If you need help, consider a consultation or our tax compliance service.

Uncertainty About Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders

| By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

See our more recent blog post: A Rationale For Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders.

Traders in securities and/or commodities, qualifying for trader tax status (TTS) as a sole proprietor, S-Corp, or partnership (including hedge funds), are wondering if they should use “qualified business income” (QBI) tax treatment on their 2018 tax returns. I see a rationale to include such treatment, but there are conflicts and unresolved questions, which renders it uncertain at this time. Section 199A QBI regs include “trading” as a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB), and QBI counts Section 475 ordinary income or loss. However, Section 199A’s interaction with 864(c) may override that and deny QBI tax treatment to U.S. resident traders.

QBI treatment might be an issue for all TTS traders, not just the ones who elected Section 475 ordinary income or loss. For example, a TTS sole proprietor trader filing a Schedule C would report business expenses as a QBI loss, which might reduce aggregate QBI from other activities, thereby reducing an overall QBI deduction. There are QBI loss carryovers, too.

Many TTS traders and hedge funds don’t want QBI tax treatment since they have not elected Section 475, and QBI excludes capital gains, Section 988 forex ordinary income, dividends, and interest income. Hedge fund accountants seem to prefer the Section 864 rationale to not use QBI treatment for TTS funds.

A partnership or S-Corp needs to report QBI items on Schedule K-1 lines for “Other Information,” in box 20 for partnerships and box 17 for S-Corps, including Section 199A income or loss, and related 199A factors like W-2 wages and qualified property.

With uncertainty over QBI tax treatment, traders should file 2018 tax extensions for partnerships and S-Corps by March 15, 2019, and extensions for individuals by April 15, 2019.

A 2019 Section 475 election is due by those extension deadlines. Section 475 gives tax loss insurance: Exemption on wash sale loss adjustments on securities and avoidance of the $3,000 capital loss limitation. There’s a chance traders might be entitled to a QBI deduction on 475 income, so factor that possibility into decision making. (See my recent blog on extensions and 475 elections.)

Section 864 might deny QBI treatment to TTS traders
I took a closer look at the confusing language in Section 199A’s interaction with Section 864(c), which might deny QBI treatment to TTS traders. Section 199A final regs imply that if a trade or business does not constitute “effectively connected income” (ECI) in the hands of a non-resident alien under Section 864(c), then it’s not QBI for a U.S. resident taxpayer operating a domestic trade or business.

Historically, Section 864 applied to nonresident aliens, and foreign entities for determining U.S. source income, including ECI in Section 864(c). Reading Section 864 makes sense with nonresident aliens in mind. However, it gets confusing when 199A overlays language on top of Section 864 for the benefit of determining QBI for U.S. residents.

The function of Section 864 is to show nonresident aliens how to distinguish between U.S.-source income (effectively connected income) vs. foreign-source income. An essential element of Section 199A is to limit a QBI deduction to “domestic trades or businesses,” not foreign ones. 199A also uses the term “qualified trades or business.” It appears the authors of 199A used a modified Section 864 for determining “domestic QBI.”

Section 864 a “trade or business within the U.S.” does not include:
“Section 864(b) — Trade or business within the United States.

Section 864(b)(2) — Trading in securities or commodities.

(A): Stocks and securities.

(i)    In general. Trading in stocks or securities through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other independent agent.

(ii)    Trading for taxpayer’s own account. Trading in stocks or securities for the taxpayer’s own account, whether by the taxpayer or his employees or through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other agent, and whether or not any such employee or agent has discretionary authority to make decisions in effecting the transactions. This clause shall not apply in the case of a dealer in stocks or securities.

(C) Limitation. Subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i) (for commodities) shall apply only if, at no time during the taxable year, the taxpayer has an office or other fixed place of business in the United States through which or by the direction of which the transactions in stocks or securities, or in commodities, as the case may be, are effected.”

Example of (ii) above: A nonresident alien “trades his own account” at a U.S. brokerage firm. The nonresident does not have an office in the U.S., but it doesn’t matter since the 864(b)(2)(C) limitation does not apply to (ii), a trader for his account, it only applies to (i). Although this trader might qualify for TTS, he does not have a “trade or business within the U.S.” and therefore does not have QBI as a nonresident alien.

Notice how Section 199A regs reference Section 864:

“Section 199A(c)(3)(A)(i) provides that for purposes of determining QBI, the term qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss means items of income, gain, deduction and loss to the extent such items are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864(c), determined by substituting ‘qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A’ for ‘nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation’ or for ‘a foreign corporation’ each place it appears).”

According to tax publisher Checkpoint, “Effectively connected income-qualified business income defined for purposes of the 2018-2025 pass-through deduction.”

“Income derived from excluded services under Code Sec. 864(b)(1) (performance of personal services for foreign employer, or Code Sec. 864(b)(2) (trading in securities or commodities) can never be effectively connected income in the hands of a nonresident alien.

Code Sec. 864(b)(2) generally treats foreign persons, including partnerships, who are trading in stocks, securities, and in commodities for their own account or through a broker or other independent agent as not engaged in a U.S. trade or business. So, if a trade or business isn’t engaged in a U.S. trade or business by reason of Code Sec. 864(b), items of income, gain, deduction, or loss from that trade or business won’t be included in QBI because those items wouldn’t be effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business.”

In 199A, the first reference to Section 864 is under the heading “Interaction of Sections 875(1) and 199A.”

“Section 875(1) Partnerships; beneficiaries of estates and trusts: (i) a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation shall be considered as being engaged in a trade or business within the United States if the partnership of which such individual or corporation is a member is so engaged, and (ii) a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation which is a beneficiary of an estate or trust which is engaged in any trade or business within the United States shall be treated as being engaged in such trade or business within the United States.”

An example of Section 875(1): Consider a U.S. partnership in the consulting business. U.S. residents and nonresident alien investors own it. The Schedule K-1 for partners reports ordinary income on line 1, which according to Section 875(1) is ECI for the nonresident partners. The nonresident alien must file a Form 1040NR to report this ECI, and she might be eligible for a QBI deduction since it’s from a “domestic trade or business,” determined on the entity level.

Conflicts and unresolved questions
Tax writers in 199A regs left conflicts and unresolved questions when it comes to traders in securities and or commodities. Are traders in no man’s land? I’ve asked several of the tax attorneys in IRS Office of Chief Counsel listed in the 199A regs to answer the following question: Are U.S. resident traders in securities and or commodities with trader tax status subject to QBI tax treatment? I am awaiting an answer.

The 199A regs state:

“The trade or business of the performance of services that consist of investing and investment management, trading, or dealing in securities (as defined in section 475(c)(2))…

(xii) Meaning of the provision of services in trading. For purposes of section 199A(d)(2) and paragraph (b)(1)(xi) of this section only, the performance of services that consist of trading means a trade or business of trading in securities (as defined in section 475(c)(2)), commodities (as defined in section 475(e)(2)), or partnership interests. Whether a person is a trader in securities, commodities, or partnership interests is determined by taking into account all relevant facts and circumstances, including the source and type of profit that is associated with engaging in the activity regardless of whether that person trades for the person’s own account, for the account of others, or any combination thereof.”

Section 199A regs define “trading” as a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB). The regs focus on “performance of services,” which relates to a proprietary trader performing trading services to a prop trading firm and issued a 1099-Misc as an independent contractor. Some tax advisors had suggested that hedge funds don’t perform trading services; their management companies do. That may be why tax writers added “trading for your own account.”

The million-dollar question is “Why define TTS trading as an SSTB unless the tax writers intended QBI treatment for that SSTB?

Only a Section 475 election can generate QBI income for a trading SSTB (or QBI losses, if incurred). The 199A final regs added Section 475 to QBI. This combination of SSTB and 475 income would make a trader eligible for a QBI deduction. Others could argue 475 was added only for dealers in securities and or commodities.

The 199A regs indicate if a trade or business does not constitute “effectively connected income” (ECI) in the hands of a nonresident alien under Section 864(c), then it’s not QBI for a U.S. resident taxpayer, even if operating a domestic trade or business. Is there a loophole in that “trader in securities or commodities” are covered under Section 864(b)(2), not 864(c)?

My partner Darren Neuschwander CPA, and I communicated with leading CPAs, including two big-four tax partners. Those tax partners acknowledged conflicts and uncertainties in QBI treatment for hedge funds and solo TTS traders. The vast majority of larger hedge funds don’t elect Section 475, so those hedge funds would only experience the downside to QBI treatment — QBI losses for investors.

The tax attorneys who drafted TCJA and199A regs may have intended to exclude TTS trading companies including hedge funds from QBI tax treatment because they figured these companies would most likely have QBI losses caused by TTS business expenses. They knew QBI excluded most portfolio income like capital gains, dividends, and interest income so that traders might consider the law unfair. I advocated for TTS trades to have QBI treatment because many solo TTS traders have elected Section 475 and they would get a QBI deduction.

TTS and 475 elections help traders
No matter which way the pendulum swings on QBI treatment for traders, I still recommend trader tax status for deducting business expenses, and a TTS S-Corp for health insurance and retirement plan deductions. There are always the tax loss insurance benefits in Section 475. (See Traders Elect Section 475 For Massive Tax Savings.)

Darren L. Neuschwander CPA, and Roger Lorence JD contributed to this blog post.

Traders Elect Section 475 For Massive Tax Savings

February 21, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

If you are a securities trader eligible for trader tax status (TTS), consider making a timely Section 475 election for 2019. Section 475 means you’ll avoid wash sales and the capital loss limitation. You might also become eligible for the 20% qualified business income deduction, although QBI treatment is currently uncertain for TTS traders.

Historically, the chief tax benefit of Section 475 was deducting trading losses without limits. Section 475 trades are exempt from onerous wash sale loss adjustments on securities, which can trigger a tax bill on phantom income at year-end. Section 475 ordinary losses are not capital losses, which means the puny $3,000 capital loss limitation doesn’t apply.

Example 1: A sole proprietor TTS trader incurred a trading loss of $30,000 in 2018. He elected Section 475 for 2018 by April 17, 2018, and reported it as an ordinary loss on Form 4797 Part II. He also deducted $10,000 of trading business expenses on a Schedule C. He offsets the entire trading business loss of $40,000 against wage income of $100,000 for a gross income of $60,000. That generates a significant tax refund. Without a 475 election, this trader would have a $3,000 capital loss limitation on Schedule D, a $10,000 ordinary loss on Schedule C, and a gross income of $87,000. He would also have a capital loss carryover of $27,000.

Example 2: The markets dropped in December 2018, and many traders incurred significant capital losses. Markets rallied back in January 2019, and many of traders repurchased positions they sold for losses in December. They didn’t wait 31 days, so they triggered wash sale loss adjustments at year-end 2018. It caused many to owe significant capital gains taxes on phantom income. The deferred WS cost basis might cause some traders to have substantial capital losses in 2019, well above the capital loss limitation. A double whammy. A 475 election for 2019 can convert 2019 capital losses into ordinary losses. It doesn’t fix 2018 but helps a lot in 2019.

With the advent of the new tax law TCJA and 199A regs, TTS traders might derive an essential tax benefit from Section 475 ordinary income. TCJA introduced a 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction, and QBI includes Section 475 ordinary income or loss but excludes capital gains and losses, forex Section 988 and swap contract ordinary income, dividends and interest income. Trading is a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB), which means the QBI deduction is disallowed if the individual’s taxable income exceeds the 2019 income cap of $421,400/$210,700 (married/other taxpayers). However, QBI tax treatment is uncertain because of 199A references to Section 864(c), which seem to deny the QBI treatment for TTS traders. There are conflicts and unresolved questions for traders in 199A, so stay tuned. (See Uncertainty About Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders.)

Excerpt from Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide
By default, securities and Section 1256 investors are stuck with capital-loss treatment, meaning they’re limited to a $3,000 net capital loss against ordinary income. The problem is that their trading losses may be much higher and not useful as a tax deduction in the current tax year. Capital losses first offset capital gains in full without restriction. After the $3,000 loss limitation against other income is applied, the rest is carried over to the following tax years. Many traders wind up with little money to trade and unused capital losses. It can take many years to use up their capital loss carryovers. What an unfortunate waste! Why not get tax savings from using Section 475 MTM right away?

Business traders qualifying for TTS have the option to elect Section 475 MTM accounting with ordinary gain or loss treatment in a timely fashion. When traders have negative taxable income generated from business losses, Section 475 accounting classifies them as net operating losses (NOLs). Caution: Individual business traders who miss the Section 475 MTM election date (April 15, 2019, for 2019) can’t claim business ordinary-loss treatment for 2019 and will be stuck with capital-loss carryovers.

A new entity set up after April 15 can deliver Section 475 MTM for the rest of 2019 on trading losses generated in the entity account if it files an internal Section 475 MTM election within 75 days of inception. This election does not change the character of capital loss treatment on the individual accounts before or after its creation. The entity is meant to be a fix for going forward; it’s not a means to clean up the past problems of capital loss treatment.

Ordinary trading losses can offset all types of income (wages, portfolio income, and capital gains) on a joint or single filing, whereas capital losses only offset capital gains. Plus, business expenses and business ordinary trading losses comprise an NOL, which is carried forward. It doesn’t matter if you are a trader or not in a carryforward year. Business ordinary trading loss treatment is the most significant contributor to federal and state tax refunds for traders.

Starting in 2018, TCJA repealed the two-year NOL carryback, except for certain farming losses and casualty and disaster insurance companies. This means NOLs are carried forward indefinitely, and the deduction of 2018 and subsequent-year NOLs are limited to 80% of taxable income. TCJA also introduced a new excess business loss (EBL) limitation of $500,000 married and $250,000 for other taxpayers. Add EBL to an NOL carryforward.

Section 475 ordinary losses reduce net investment income for calculating the 3.8% Obamacare net investment tax.

There are many nuances and misconceptions about Section 475 MTM, and it’s essential to learn the rules. For example, taxpayers are entitled to contemporaneously segregate investment positions that aren’t subject to Section 475 MTM treatment, meaning at year-end, they can defer unrealized gains on properly segregated investments. Taxpayers can have the best of both worlds — ordinary tax losses on business trading and deferral with lower long-term capital gains tax rates on segregated investment positions. We generally recommend electing Section 475 on securities only to retain lower 60/40 capital gains rates on Section 1256 contracts. Far too many accountants and traders confuse TTS and Section 475; they are two different things, yet very connected.

Section 475 election procedures
Section 475 MTM is optional with TTS. Existing taxpayer individuals that qualify for TTS and want Section 475 must file a 2019 Section 475 election statement with their 2018 tax return or extension by April 15, 2019. Existing partnerships and S-Corps file in the same manner by March 15, 2019.

Election statement. “Under Section 475(f), the Taxpayer elects to adopt the mark-to-market method of accounting for the tax year ending Dec. 31, 2019, and subsequent tax years. The election applies to the following trade or business: Trader in Securities as a sole proprietor (for securities only and not commodities/Section 1256 contracts).”

Form 3115 filing. Don’t forget an essential second step: Existing taxpayers complete the election process by filing a Form 3115 (change of accounting method) with the election-year tax return. (I cover the Section 481(a) adjustment in the guide.)

The Section 475 election procedure is different for new taxpayers like a new entity. Within 75 days of inception, a new taxpayer may file the Section 475 election statement internally in its records. The new entity does not have to submit a Form 3115 because it’s adopting Section 475 from inception, rather than changing its accounting method.

If you have a significant capital loss carryover going into 2019, you might want to wait on making a 475 election since you will need capital gains to use it up. (I cover this decision-making and related 475 strategies in my tax guide.)

For more in-depth information on Section 475, see Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide Chapter 2.

I revised this blog post on March 5, 2019, in conjunction with my new blog post Uncertainty About Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders