Author Archives: Robert Green

How To Save Taxes With Children

October 8, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA

Children are lovely, but they also cost a lot of money on childcare and education costs. With careful tax planning, you can generate significant tax savings.

Consider shifting a portion of investment income from the parent’s tax return to the children. However, avoid having too high unearned income for younger children as that might trigger the “kiddie tax,” which defeats the intended purpose. (See below: The “kiddie tax” rules and how they affect you.)

If you have a family business, consider hiring your children to shift earned income to the children’s lower tax brackets. For sole proprietorships and LLC/partnerships, you might also save social security taxes. (See below: Tax benefits of putting junior family members on the payroll.)

There is a litany of tax planning strategies to consider while saving for education, including college. These include qualified tuition programs (“529 plans”), tax-exempt bonds, Coverdell education savings accounts, tuition tax credits, employer educational assistance programs, college expense payments by grandparents and others, the student loan interest deduction, borrowing against retirement plan accounts, and withdrawals from retirement plan accounts. (See below: Tax planning for college, and Qualified tuition programs-”529 plans”)

As a working parent, you might qualify for the dependent care credit or an employer-provided dependent care flexible spending account (FSA). Determine which one is better for your tax bracket and needs. (See below: Dependent care credit/dependent care flexible spending account.)

The new tax law, TCJA, made the child tax credit (CTC) more valuable, and more taxpayers should qualify for this credit. (See below: Child tax credit.)

Client Letters from Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting:

  • The “kiddie tax” rules and how they affect you (page 3)
  • Tax benefits of putting junior family members on the payroll (page 5)
  • Tax planning for college (page 7)
  • Qualified tuition programs-”529 plans” (page 14)
  • Dependent care credit/dependent care flexible spending account (page 16)
  • Child tax credit (page 20)

We are emailing a PDF file containing the above Client Letters, so sign up for our Email List.

If you would like to discuss any of these tax planning strategies, contact your assigned CPA in our firm, or consider a consultation. Contact us with any questions.

Thank you,

Robert A. Green, CPA
CEO, GreenTraderTax.com
Managing Member, Green, Neuschwander & Manning, LLC

 

What You Trade Can Make A World Of Tax Difference

September 29, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

There’s a bevy of financial products to trade with a wide assortment of tax treatment. Traders have access to U.S. and international equities, futures and other Section 1256 contracts, options, ETFs, ETNs, forex, precious metals, foreign futures, cryptocurrencies, and swap contracts. Broker-issued Form 1099-Bs might not provide the best available tax treatment, and in some cases, there are no 1099s issued.

Securities
Securities traders have ordinary tax rates on short-term capital gains, wash sale loss adjustments, capital-loss limitations, and accounting challenges.

Securities include:
- U.S. and international equities (stocks)
- U.S. and foreign equity (stock) options
- narrow-based indexes (an index made up of nine or fewer securities)
- options on narrow-based indexes
- securities ETFs structured as registered investment companies (RIC)
- options on securities ETF RICs
- commodities ETFs structured as publicly traded partnerships (PTP)
- volatility ETNs, structured as debt instruments
- bonds
- mutual funds
- single-stock futures

Securities don’t include:
- Section 1256 contracts
- precious metals (collectibles)
- ETFs structured as publicly traded trusts (PTT)
- CBOE-listed options on ETF PTPs and ETF PTTs
- CBOE-listed options on ETNs
- volatility ETNs structured as prepaid forward contracts (PFC)
- cryptocurrencies (intangible property)
- forex (spot and forwards contracts)
- swap contracts

The IRS taxes securities transactions when a taxpayer closes an open trade – hence the term “realization method.” Taxpayers can defer capital gains by holding open securities positions at year-end.

With “tax-loss selling,” investors realize losses before year-end. Be careful not to re-enter those positions within 31 days; otherwise, the planned tax loss might defer to 2020 as a wash sale loss adjustment.

Short-term capital gains (STCG) use ordinary tax rates, currently up to 37% for 2019 and 2020. Long-term capital gains (LTCG) rates are significantly lower, and they apply to sales of securities held for 12 months or more. The LTCG rates are 0% for the 10% and 12% ordinary brackets, 15% in the middle brackets, and 20% in the top 37% bracket. (See 2019 Tax Brackets.)

The mark-to-market (MTM) accounting method is different. MTM taxes realized and unrealized capital gains and losses at year-end. Traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) are entitled to elect Section 475 MTM ordinary gain or loss on securities and or commodities. (See How Traders Get Enormous Tax Deductions, And Investors Do Not.) Section 1256 contracts have MTM by default. (See 1256 contracts below).

Capital losses, including capital loss carryovers, offset capital gains without a limitation. A net capital loss for the year is limited to $3,000 against other income like wages. Capital loss carryovers don’t expire; they are deferred tax assets. If you have excess capital losses, don’t rush to elect Section 475 ordinary income as you need capital gains to use up capital losses. Look at all sources of capital gains, including sales of real property and intangible property. Trading entities and hedge funds can pass capital gains to the owner’s tax return.

Section 1256 Contracts
Section 1256 contracts enjoy lower 60/40 capital gains tax rates, summary tax reporting, and easier mark-to-market accounting.

Section 1256 contracts include:
- U.S. regulated futures contracts (RFCs)
- options on U.S. RFCs
- U.S. broad-based indexes made up of 10 or more underlying securities – also known as stock index futures
- options on U.S. broad-based indexes
- foreign futures if granted Section 1256 treatment in an IRS revenue ruling (see list)
- non-equity options (a catchall)
- CBOE-listed options on commodity ETF publicly traded partnerships (PTP)
- CBOE-listed options on precious metals ETF publicly traded trusts (PTT)
- CBOE-listed options on volatility ETN prepaid forward contracts and ETN debt instruments
- forward forex contracts with the opt-out election into Section 1256(g) on the major pairs, for which futures trade (we make a case for spot forex, too)
- forex OTC options (Wright court)

Section 1256 contracts have lower 60/40 capital gains tax rates: 60% (including day trades) subject to lower long-term capital gains rates, and 40% taxed as short-term capital gains using the ordinary rate. At the maximum tax bracket for 2019 and 2020, the blended 60/40 rate is 26.8% — 10.2% lower than the highest ordinary bracket of 37%. There are significant tax savings throughout the income brackets. The LTCG rate in the lowest two ordinary brackets is 0%. (See our table Section 1256 tax rates vs. ordinary rates.)

Section 1256 contracts are marked-to-market (MTM) daily. For tax purposes, MTM reports both realized activity from throughout the year and unrealized gains and losses on open trading positions at year-end. The 1099-B is one page with summary reporting.

There is a Section 1256 loss carryback election. Rather than use the 1256 loss in the current year, deduct 1256 losses on amended tax return filings, applied against Section 1256 gains only. Form 1045 is better than 1040X. It’s a three-year carryback; unused amounts carry forward. TCJA repealed most NOL carrybacks, so this is the only remaining carryback opportunity for traders. (See Trading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages.)

Options
Tax treatment for options is diverse, including simple (outright) and complex trades with multiple legs.

Options taxed as securities:
- equity (stock) options
- options on narrow-based indexes
- options on securities ETFs RIC

Options taxed as 1256 contracts:
- non-equity options (a catchall)
- options on U.S. regulated futures contracts and broad-based indexes
- CBOE-listed options on commodity ETF publicly traded partnerships (PTP)
- CBOE-listed options on precious metals ETF publicly traded trusts (PTT)
- CBOE-listed options on volatility ETN prepaid forward contracts and ETN debt instruments
- forex OTC options (Wright appeals court)

Generally, options listed on a commodities exchange, a qualified board or exchange (QBE), are a 1256 contract unless the reference is a single stock or a narrow-based stock index. A securities ETF RIC is like a stock in this regard.

Three things can happen with outright option trades:

- Trade option (closing transaction).
- The option expires (lapses).
- Exercise the option.

There are special rules for the holding period for long-term capital gains. (See Tax Treatment Can Be Tricky With Options and ETFs.)

Exchange-Traded Funds (ETF)
Securities, commodities, and precious metals ETFs use different structures, and tax treatment varies.

Securities ETFs: Securities ETFs are registered investment companies (RICs). Selling a securities ETF is deemed a sale of a security, calling for short-term and long-term capital gains tax treatment on the realization method. As a security, wash sale loss adjustments or Section 475 apply if elected.

Commodities ETFs: Commodities ETFs use the publicly traded partnership (PTP) structure. PTPs issue annual Schedule K-1s passing through Section 1256 tax treatment on Section 1256 transactions to investors, as well as other taxable items. Selling a commodity ETF is deemed a sale of a security, calling for short-term and long-term capital gains tax treatment using the realization method. It’s a security, so it’s subject to WS losses and a 475 election if elected.

Taxpayers invested in commodities ETFs should adjust cost-basis on Form 8949 (capital gains and losses). That ensures they don’t double count Schedule K-1 pass-through income or loss. Form 1099-B and trade accounting software do not make this adjustment, so you need to make a manual adjustment.

Physically backed precious metals ETFs: They usually choose the publicly traded trust (PTT) structure (also known as a grantor trust). A PTT issues an annual Schedule K-1, passing through tax treatment to the investor, which in this case is the “collectibles” rate on sales of physically-backed precious metals (such as gold bullion). Selling a precious metal ETF is deemed disposition of a precious metal, which is a collectible. For collectibles held over one year (long-term), sales use the “collectibles” rate —capped at 28%. Short-term capital gains use the ordinary rate. Precious metals and ETFs backed by precious metals are not securities, so they are not subject to WS loss adjustments, or Section 475 if elected.

Forex
Forex transactions start off receiving an ordinary gain or loss treatment, as dictated by Section 988 (foreign currency transactions). Ordinary losses are generally better than capital losses, providing the trader has other income to absorb the loss. With eligibility for TTS, an excess ordinary business loss is a net operating loss (NOL) carryforward.

Section 988 allows traders to file a capital gains election to opt-out of Section 988 ordinary treatment. It must be done contemporaneously in your books and records. You can make, or retract, the opt-out election on a “good to cancel” basis at any time during the year. If you have a capital loss carryover, then consider a capital gains election.

The capital gains election on forex forwards allows the trader to use lower 60/40 capital gains rates in Section 1256(g). There are two requirements: It must be on “major currencies,” and the trader must not take or make delivery. “Major currencies” means currency pairs, which also trade as futures on U.S. commodities exchanges. We make a case for including “spot” forex in Section 1256(g). (See A Case For Retail Forex Traders Using Section 1256(g) Lower 60/40 Tax Rates.)

Foreign futures
By default, futures contracts listed on international exchanges are not Section 1256 contracts. If the international exchange wants Section 1256 tax treatment, they must obtain an IRS Revenue Ruling granting 1256 treatment. Only a handful of international futures exchanges have Section 1256 treatment: Eurex, LIFFE, ICE Futures Europe, and ICE Futures Canada. Foreign futures are otherwise ST or LT capital gains. (See Tax treatment for foreign futures.)

Precious metals
Physical precious metals are “collectibles,” which are a particular class of capital assets. If you hold collectibles over one year (long-term), sales are taxed at the “collectibles” tax rate — capped at 28%. (If your ordinary rate is lower, use that.) If you hold collectibles one year or less, the short-term capital gains ordinary tax rate applies no different from the regular STCG tax rate.

Volatility products
There are many different types of volatility-based financial products to trade, and tax treatment varies.

CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) futures are Section 1256 contracts with lower 60/40 MTM tax rates. The NYSE-traded SVXY is an exchange-traded fund (ETF), taxed as a security. The iPath S&P 500 VIX Short-Term Futures (VXX) is an exchange-traded note (ETN).

Volatility ETNs. Many issuers structure volatility ETNs as prepaid forward contracts (PFC), which provides a deferral of taxes until sale (realization). Long-term capital gains rates apply if held 12 months or longer. (i.e., VXX). However, prepaid forward contracts are not securities. Therefore, they are not subject to WS loss adjustments and Section 475 if elected. Many 1099-Bs treat ETN PFC as securities subject to WS. Consider departing from the 1099-B with footnote disclosure. Some ETNs, like UGAZ, are debt instruments taxed as securities, which means they are subject to WS losses and Section 475 if chosen. (Check the tax section of the ETN prospectus and see Other Financial Products.)

Cryptocurrencies
Selling, exchanging, or using cryptocurrency triggers capital gains and losses for traders. The IRS treats cryptocurrencies as intangible property; not a security or a commodity.

The realization method applies to short-term vs. long-term capital gains and losses. If you invested in cryptocurrencies and sold, exchanged, or spent some during the year, you have to report a capital gain or loss on each transaction. Include cryptocurrency-to-currency sales, crypto-to-alt-crypto trades, and purchases of goods or services using crypto.

U.S. cryptocurrency exchanges issue a Form 1099-K to accounts with transactions over a certain threshold. The problem for the IRS is that many cryptocurrency transactions on exchanges around the world are not evident for tax reporting. Cryptocurrency investors should download all crypto transactions into a crypto accounting program that is IRS-compliant.

Wash sales do not apply to intangible property. Use the first-in-first-out (FIFO) accounting method. Intangible property should use the specific identification method, but that requires broker confirmation of each trade, which is not possible.

TCJA restricted Section 1031 like-kind exchanges to real property, starting in 2018. That rules out using like-kind exchange on crypto-to-crypto trades (i.e., Bitcoin for Ethereum). It’s questionable whether crypto traders could have used Section 1031 before 2018 to defer capital gains taxes. The IRS promised the public more advice on crypto, and it recently mailed tax “education” notices to crypto traders. I hope the IRS addresses Section 1031, hard forks or chain splits, and several other open questions. (See Watch Out Cryptocurrency Owners; The IRS Is On The Hunt.)

Swap contracts
The Dodd-Frank financial regulation law promised to clear private swap transactions on exchanges to protect the markets from another swap-induced financial meltdown. Remember those credit default swaps with insufficient margin? When Congress enacted Dodd-Frank, traders hoped that clearing on futures exchanges would allow Section 1256 tax treatment. They were wrong: Congress and the IRS immediately communicated that Section 1256 would not apply to swap transactions, and they confirmed ordinary gain or loss treatment.

Roger D. Lorence JD contributed to this blog post.

Join my upcoming Webinar on October 23, 2019, or watch the recording after to learn more about this content: Trader Tax Strategies 2019 Year-End Update

For more information on wash sales and Section 475, see How Traders Get Enormous Tax Deductions, And Investors Do Not.

For more in-depth information, see Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide

How Traders Get Enormous Tax Deductions, And Investors Do Not

September 28, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Traders eligible for “trader tax status” (TTS) deduct business expenses, startup costs, and home office deductions. A TTS trader may elect Section 475 for exemption from wash sale loss adjustments (deferrals), the $3,000 capital loss limitation, and to be eligible for a 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction. Trading income is not self-employment income, so TTS traders don’t owe SE taxes. Using an S-Corp, TTS traders create earned income to maximize health insurance and or retirement plan deductions.

Lacking TTS, investors get peanuts in the tax code. TCJA, the new tax code suspended investment fees and expenses along with all other miscellaneous itemized deductions subject to the 2% floor. Two itemized-deductions for investors survived tax reform: Investment-interest expense limited to investment income, and stock-borrow fees. With the state and local tax (SALT) limitation and roughly-doubled standard deduction, many investors don’t get any tax deductions for investment-related expenses.

The IRS does not permit investors to elect Section 475, so they are stuck with wash sale loss adjustments, and the $3,000 capital loss limitation. Short-term capital gains are subject to ordinary tax brackets. Investors benefit from long-term capital gains, providing the investor holds a position open for 12-months or more. Long-term capital gains rates are 0%, 15% and 20% for 2019 and 2020. Traders can have segregated investments for LTCG, too. 

How to qualify for trader tax status
Satisfy the below requirements based on my analysis of tax court cases and years of experience working with traders. 

· Substantial volume – at least four total trades per day, 15 per week, 60 per month, and 720 per year annualized (Poppe court). Count open and closing trades separately.
· Frequency – a trade execution on 75% of available trading days. That’s close to four days per week.
· Average holding period under 31 days (Endicott court bright-line test).
The above factors are the “big three.”
· Continuous trading with few sporadic lapses.
· Time – four hours per day, including trading, research, and administration.
· Intention to run a business and to make a living. It doesn’t have to be a primary living.
· Business setup (multiple trading devices, monitors, and a home office).
· Materiality (Pattern Day Trader minimum for securities of $25,000; $15,000 otherwise).

Assess your facts and circumstances for TTS towards the year-end. If you rise to the level of TTS, then deduct business expenses, startup costs, and home office expenses on Schedule C, a partnership, or S-Corp tax return. TTS business expenses do not require an election with the IRS; whereas, Section 475 does require a timely election. TTS does not convert capital losses into ordinary losses; a Section 475 election is necessary for ordinary gain or loss treatment. 

TTS business expenses
If you are eligible for TTS, you are entitled to deduct the below items, and more:

· Tangible personal property up to $2,500 per item, including computers, monitors, desks, and mobile devices.
· Section 179 (100%) depreciation, 100% bonus depreciation, and or regular depreciation.
· Amortization (expensing) of startup costs (Section 195), organization costs (Section 248), and software.
· Education expenses after the commencement of TTS.
· Section 195 startup costs may include education expenses within six months of beginning TTS.
· Publications, subscriptions, market data, charting services, self-created automated trading systems, cloud computing, professional services (accountants and attorneys), chat rooms, mentors, coaches, supplies, media, communications, travel, meals, seminars, conferences, supplies, assistants, office rent, and consultants.
· Home-office expenses for the business portion of your home. (See Home Office Tax Deductions Are Fantastic: Learn How To Do It.)
· Margin interest expenses. (Not limited to investment income like investment interest is.)
· Stock-borrow fees and other costs for short-sellers.

Wash sale loss adjustments
Wash sale loss adjustments on securities cause headaches and potentially higher tax bills. If a taxpayer repurchases substantially identical securities within 30 days before or after realizing a tax loss on securities, the IRS uses the wash sale (WS) loss rule. That defers a tax loss to the replacement position’s cost basis.

For example, if you sell Apple stock at a tax loss on December 15, 2019, and repurchase a substantially identical position (Apple stock or option) on January 10, 2020, the 2019 wash sale loss defers to 2020. It’s critical to avoid WS at year-end in taxable accounts by breaking the 30-day chain. Sell the position by year-end for a tax loss, and don’t repurchase a substantially identical position for 31 days. If you want to catch a rally in January, then consider it may not be so bad to defer a loss as it’s just a timing issue.

It’s essential to prevent WS losses throughout the year between taxable and IRA accounts because it’s a permanent WS loss. The IRS does not allow a WS loss to be added to cost basis in the IRA. 

There are other ways to avoid WS. TTS traders can elect Section 475 on securities to be exempt from WS. Traders can choose to trade instruments that are not considered securities, including futures, forex, precious metals, and cryptocurrencies. 

WS rules for taxpayers and brokers are different. The IRS requires taxpayers to calculate WS losses based on substantially identical securities positions (i.e., Apple equity vs. Apple options), across all taxpayer’s brokerage accounts, including IRAs and spousal accounts if married/filing joint. Conversely, the IRS requires brokers to calculate WS based on identical securities (an exact symbol) per the one brokerage account. This apples vs. oranges is problematic since the IRS seeks to match broker 1099-Bs with taxpayer Form 8949s. Many accountants and taxpayers do not know these differences in the rules. Consider trade accounting software that is compliant with IRS rules for taxpayers, and you should explain overall differences in tax return footnotes. (See How To Avoid Taxes On Wash Sale Losses.)

Elect Section 475 for additional tax benefits
The IRS permits TTS traders to elect Section 475 ordinary gain or loss treatment on securities and or commodities. Section 475 trades are exempt from wash sale loss rules, and the $3,000 capital loss limitation. Short-term capital gains use the same ordinary rate as Section 475, except 475 also unlocks a potential QBI deduction. There are significant tax benefits on Section 475 ordinary losses vs. capital losses. TTS traders can deduct a 475 ordinary business loss against wages and other income; thereby bypassing the capital loss limitation. Excess ordinary losses are a net operating loss (NOL) carry forward.

TCJA introduced a 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction for sole proprietors, partnerships, and S-Corps. TTS trading is a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB) subject to a taxable income threshold, phase-in and phase-out range, and taxable income cap. If you exceed the taxable income cap, you don’t get a QBI deduction on an SSTB. QBI includes Section 475 income/loss net of trading business expenses; whereas, QBI excludes capital gains/losses, interest, dividends, and other investment income. (See A Rationale For Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders.)

Most futures traders prefer to skip a 475 election to retain Section 1256 60/40 capital gains rates; they don’t want ordinary income. However, if you have a significant trading loss in 1256 contracts, then consider a 475 election on commodities. You can revoke a Section 475 election in a subsequent year, in the same manner, you elected it. (See more about Section 475 and how to choose it in my blog post, Traders Elect Section 475 For Massive Tax Savings.)

Join my upcoming Webinar on October 23, 2019, or watch the recording after to learn more about this content: Trader Tax Strategies 2019 Year-End Update

For more in-depth information, see Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide

Home Office Tax Deductions Are Fantastic: Learn How To Do It

August 24, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Since 1999, the home-office deduction is no longer a red flag — millions of Americans benefit from this deduction each year. Countless taxpayers run businesses from home, and the IRS understands this. The income-requirement rule also limits the use of this deduction for profitable enterprises, which appeases IRS concerns about abuse and hobby-loss businesses. Before the IRS liberalized home-office deduction rules in 1999, a more stringent requirement was that business taxpayers needed to meet clients in their home office. Now, the only requirement is administration work, and another principal office outside the home doesn’t negate the deduction.

Many small-business owners, including traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS), operate from a home office. Some of them also conduct their business from job locations using cloud computing, apps, and mobile devices. They can qualify for the home office expense deduction in this situation, as well. The IRS does not permit investors to take a home office deduction.

Convert personal home costs into business expense deductions. This same concept applies to many other items such as phone, Internet, furniture, fixtures, and more. Keep in mind that business income or TTS trading gains are needed to unlock most home-office deductions. If a business doesn’t have sufficient net income, the otherwise allowable home office deductions are carried over to the following tax years. (In this situation, hopefully, the person remains in the business and has net income in subsequent years to use the carryovers.)

There are several special requirements and rules for the home office deduction. A home office must be exclusively and regularly used for business, meaning children and guests can’t use this room. Report “indirect expenses” on Form 8829 and include every expense and cost related to the home. For example, include depreciation or rent, utilities, insurance, repairs and maintenance, security, cleaning, lawn care, and more.

Include mortgage interest and real property taxes, too, and this home-office portion doesn’t require income. The remaining part of mortgage interest expense and real property taxes are Schedule A itemized deductions.

Real property taxes on Schedule A are part of the new tax law (TCJA) SALT limitation. However, the home office portion or real property tax is not subject to the SALT limitation.

To calculate the home-office deduction, take the square footage of the home office (and all related business areas such as storage, hallways, and bathrooms). Divide that by the total square footage of the home (10-15% is customary). Alternatively, taxpayers can do the apportionment based on the room’s method. Form 8829 multiplies the home-office percentage by the indirect expenses. If the business files a partnership return, report home-office expenses as unreimbursed partnership expenses (UPE) on Schedule E. For S-Corps, use an accountable reimbursement plan before year-end.

Per Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting Client Letter (see list below):

“Sales of homes with home offices. If you sell-at a profit-a home that contains, or contained, a home office, the otherwise available $250,000/$500,000 exclusion for gain on the sale of a principal residence won’t apply to the portion of your profit equal to the amount of depreciation you claimed on the home office.”

Depreciation expenses on the home office over the years save taxes at ordinary income tax rates. Recapture of depreciation on a sale of the principal residence is taxed up to a 25% capital gains rate, which is unique to Section 1250 property. Tax deferral is another value. The rest of the home enjoys the exclusion of capital gain up to the limit.

If a taxpayer sells his principal residence at a loss, the net loss is not deductible. However, the recapture of depreciation income might not exceed the loss amount, meaning there is no taxable income from depreciation recapture to report on the tax return.

TCJA capped state and local income taxes, sales taxes, real property taxes, and personal property taxes (SALT) itemized deductions on Schedule A at $10,000 per year (any combination thereof), and $5,000 for married filing separately. TCJA also reduced itemized deduction limits on mortgage interest expenses and casualty losses.

Home office tax benefits for employees
Employers require some employees to work from a home office. The new tax law (TCJA) suspended unreimbursed employee business expenses as itemized deductions. That leaves only one other way to arrange a tax benefit for home office expenses. An employee can seek reimbursement from an employer for home office expenses through an accountable reimbursement plan. The employer deducts home office expenses and does not include this payment on the employee’s W-2 as taxable income.

Our below Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting Client Letter for “telecommuting employees” states:

“The convenience of the employer requirement is satisfied if: you maintain your home office as a condition of employment-in other words, if your employer specifically requires you to maintain the home office and work there; your home office is necessary for the functioning of your employer’s business; or your home office is necessary to allow you to perform your duties as an employee properly. The convenience of the employer requirement means that you must maintain your home office for your employer’s convenience, and not for your own. This requirement isn’t satisfied if your use of a home office is merely “appropriate and helpful” in doing your job.”

Client Letters from Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting:

  • Home office expense deduction for a self-employed taxpayer
  • Exclusion of gain on sale or exchange of principal residence
  • How the home sale exclusion applies to a residence used for residential and business (nonresidential) purposes or to produce rental income
  • Office at home for telecommuting employees
  • Converting a home into rental property

For access to these Client Letters from Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting, please join our email list. We send bulk emails a few times per month and include links to Client Letters.

How To Be Eligible For Independent Contractor Tax Status

August 17, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

There are significant tax advantages for independent contractors (IC) vs. employees.

  • ICs deduct business expenses, whereas, the new tax law (TCJA) suspended “unreimbursed employee business expenses” as miscellaneous itemized deductions.
  • ICs are eligible for TCJA’s 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction, whereas, employees are not.
  • ICs owe 100% of social security and Medicare taxes (SE tax) on net business income, whereas employers and employees share social security and Medicare taxes 50/50 on salaries.
  • ICs are not enrolled in employer health insurance and retirement plans, whereas employees are. ICs can have individual health insurance and retirement plan AGI-deductions.

You cannot make this determination of IC vs. employee status based on your preference alone. Learn the IRS rules on worker classification. (See IRS resources and Client Letters below.)

Current developments
Some “self-employed individuals” (SEI) hire “professional employer organizations” (PEOs), known as employee leasing companies, to join the PEO payroll and employee benefit plans. The SEI reimburses the PEO for these employment costs, plus a fee. The IRS recently balked at this practice for SEIs.

IRS Chief Counsel Advice (CCA) 201916004 dated April 19, 2019, stated that PEOs could not treat SEIs as employees. PEOs should issue SEIs a Form 1099-MISC for non-employee compensation; not a W-2. This reclassification precludes the SEI from participation in a PEO employee benefit plan. The IRS does not permit sole proprietors, and partners to pay themselves wages. A partnership reports “guaranteed payments” to partners.

Trading income is unearned income. TTS traders use an S-Corp to have officer compensation for arranging employee benefits, including health insurance and retirement plans.

The IRS recently released draft 2020 Form 1099-NEC (non-employee compensation). For the 2019 tax year, a business should continue to report non-employee compensation on Form 1099-MISC box 7. The 2020 Form 1099-NEC will give the IRS more capability to track non-employee compensation. I expect the IRS to examine more companies and challenge their worker classification. Get on the right side of this issue now.

IRS Independent Contractor (Self-Employed) or Employee?
Understanding Employee vs. Contractor Designation

For access to this full blog post, which includes the above-listed Client Letters from Thomson Reuters/Tax & Accounting, please join our email list. We send bulk emails a few times per month and include links to PDFs with Client Letters.

Darren Neuschwander CPA contributed to this blog post.

How To Avoid Taxes On Wash Sale Losses

August 5, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Many securities traders incur significant tax bills on phantom income caused by “wash sale losses disallowed” on form 1099-Bs. Traders are often surprised because most brokers don’t report wash sale (WS) loss calculations during the year. In this blog post, learn how to deal with WS loss adjustments and how to avoid them in the first place.

WS loss reporting on 1099-Bs is confusing
Broker 1099-Bs report “wash sale loss disallowed” (box 1g), and it’s not uncommon to see an enormous amount for an active securities trader. The 1099-B also reports “proceeds” (box 1d), “cost or other basis” (box 1e) and several other related amounts. For example, $10M proceeds minus $9.9M cost or other basis, plus $150,000 of wash sale loss disallowed, equals $250,000 of taxable capital gains. The 1099-B cover page has summary numbers, and supplemental schedules include each securities trade for all of these boxes.

The essential point is that WS loss disallowed in box 1g is for the entire tax year. However, WS losses deferred at year-end cause phantom income in the current tax year. Many WS losses during the year might fade away by year-end (see how below). Unfortunately, brokers do not report WS losses deferred at year-end, and clients need that information. If a trader uses trade accounting software, they need this information to reverse WS loss deferrals from the prior year-end on January 1 of the current tax year.

For example, two different traders can have $1M of WS loss disallowed in box 1g. Trader A doesn’t have WS losses at year-end, and she is not concerned with those adjustments during the year. She sold all open positions by year-end and did not repurchase substantially identical positions in January. Trader B also sold all positions by year-end, but he made repurchase trades in January, which triggered $50,000 of WS losses deferred at year-end. Trader B delayed the December WS loss to the subsequent tax year.

Traders need ongoing WS loss information throughout the year to prevent this predicament. Some monthly brokerage statements include cost basis amounts for month-end open positions listed on the report, and other monthly brokerage statements do not.

Most traders don’t realize they have a WS loss problem until they receive 1099-Bs in late February. That’s too late to avoid WS losses. Some traders and tax preparers import 1099-Bs into tax preparation software. Others enter the amounts to Form 8949 and then attach the 1099-B for details. If the taxpayer has cost basis adjustments, the IRS requires Form 8949; listing each securities proceeds, cost basis, WS losses, and other cost basis adjustments. However, there’s a problem relying solely on 1099-Bs because IRS WS rules for taxpayers vary from WS rules for brokers in preparing those 1099-Bs.

WS rules for taxpayers and brokers are different
Taxpayers must calculate WS losses based on “substantially identical securities” (i.e., Apple equity vs. Apple options), across all taxpayer’s brokerage accounts, including IRAs and spousal accounts if married/filing joint. Conversely, brokers calculate WS based on “identical securities” (an exact symbol) per the one brokerage account. This apples vs. oranges is problematic since the IRS seeks to match broker 1099-Bs to Form 8949 prepared by taxpayers.

Trade accounting software can help
Traders should consider using an IRS-compliant trade accounting software or a professional service using such software. Contemporaneous use of the program allows traders to avoid WS loss adjustments with potential WS loss reports. The software/service also gives taxpayers a second opinion vs. broker 1099-Bs.

Taxpayers and accountants are entitled to depart from 1099-Bs and explain why in the tax return footnotes. For example, a 1099-B might treat an ETN prepaid forward contract (i.e., BATS: VXX) as a security with wash sales. However, an ETN structured as a prepaid forward contract (PFC) is not a security, so WS losses don’t apply. A CBOE-listed option on an ETN/PFC is a “non-equity option” in Section 1256, although most 1099-Bs treat these options as securities subject to WS losses. Many brokers rely on tax treatment provided by exchanges, who try to fit financial instruments into two boxes: securities vs. section 1256 contracts.

Traders should try to reconcile Form 8949 proceeds with 1099-B proceeds. However, they should not expect to match cost-basis information, if trade accounting software calculates WS losses differently.

Trade accounting software downloads all trades, and the program automatically calculates WS losses based on IRS rules for taxpayers, not brokers. The program explains the rationale and provides details on various tax reports.

The 1099-Bs might use FIFO or specific identification and try to reflect the same accounting method in a trade accounting program.

For the first year of using trade accounting software, traders should enter open positions from the prior year-end with original-cost basis. Additionally, traders should enter deferred WS losses applied to those open positions. Traders should also enter WS losses deferred on closed-positions repurchased within 30 days in January. Trade accounting programs do not download this information from the prior year.

It would come in handy if the broker provided the WS loss deferred at year-end. If that amount was available, you could enter it as a cost basis adjustment, in addition to open positions with an original cost basis.

In the second year of use, the trade accounting program will automatically carry over open positions and wash sale loss adjustments from the prior year. Consult the program vendor and or trade accounting expert.

Jason Derbyshire of TradeLog software says: “If brokers provide detailed reporting of WS loss deferrals at year-end, TradeLog could utilize that information to help automate input into the software. This information would enable traders to accurately track those deferred losses in the software, and make more informed decisions to capture those losses, if needed, in the following tax year.”

What exactly is a wash sale loss?
A wash-sales loss is a timing issue. If you sell a security for a loss and repurchase it 30 days before or after, you cannot deduct the economic loss immediately in a taxable account. You must add the WS loss to the replacement position’s cost basis, which kicks the can (loss) down the road.

WS loss adjustments made during the year in taxable accounts might not be a problem at year-end. Some fade away. For example, a trader can trigger a WS loss every month during the year but absorb it with a significant capital gain on that security toward year-end. Additionally, the trader can “break the chain” at year-end by selling the position and not repurchasing it for 30 days.

There are also permanent WS losses triggered by IRAs, which are catastrophic. When you sell a position at a loss in a taxable account and repurchase a substantially identical position within 30 days in an IRA, there is no way to record the WS loss. Brokers don’t report these types of WS losses since they don’t calculate WS across more than one account at a time. If you trade in an IRA only (i.e., you do not trade in taxable accounts), then you don’t have these WS loss issues.

Strategies to avoid wash-sale losses
Consider a “Do Not Trade List” to prevent permanent WS between taxable and IRA accounts. For example, a trader could trade tech stocks in his taxable accounts and energy stocks in his IRA accounts.

Taxpayers can “break the chain” on WS losses at year-end in taxable accounts to avoid deferral. If a trader sells Apple equity at a loss on December 20, 2019, consider not repurchasing Apple equity or Apple equity options until January 21, 2020. That avoids the 30-day window for triggering a WS loss. In December 2018, many traders realized tax losses before year-end with a market correction. Some didn’t want to wait 30 days and miss the January 2019 rally, thereby triggering significant WS loss deferral at year-end 2018. Deferral of WS losses can become a problem if it causes a capital loss limitation in the subsequent tax year.

WS loss adjustments during the year in taxable accounts can be absorbed if traders sell/buy those open positions before year-end with a profit.

Consider a Section 475 election. Traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) are entitled to elect Section 475 mark-to-market (MTM) accounting, which exempts them from wash-sale loss adjustments and the capital-loss limitation. I call it “tax loss insurance.” Don’t enter Section 475 trades on Form 8949; use Form 4797 Part II (ordinary gain or loss). Although Section 475 extricates securities traders from the compliance headaches of Form 8949, it does not change the requirement for reporting each trade on Form 4797.

We recommend trade accounting software to generate Form 4797. If a taxpayer elects Section 475, she will need that software to calculate a Section 481(a) adjustment, too. Even with a Section 475 election, the trader still needs to make the manual entries for open positions and opening-year WS loss adjustments mentioned earlier. The 2019 Section 475 election due date for individuals was April 15, 2019, and March 15, 2019, for existing partnerships and S-Corps.

Section 475 ordinary income is “qualified business income” (QBI). A TTS trader with 475 income net of business expenses is eligible for a 20% QBI deduction, providing the trader is under the taxable income thresholds for a “specified service business.” QBI excludes capital gains, interest, and dividend income.

Consider a new entity. Trading in an entity account might help avoid ongoing WS loss problems. The company is separate from the individual and IRA accounts for purposes of wash sales since it is a different taxpayer. The IRS is entitled to apply related party transaction rules (Section 267) if the entity purposely tries to avoid wash sales with the owner’s accounts. If the company qualifies for TTS, it can consider a Section 475 MTM election exempting it from wash sales (on TTS positions, not investment positions). A “new taxpayer” entity is entitled to elect Section 475 by internal resolution within 75 days of inception. That comes in handy after missing the 475-election deadline for individuals by April 15.

Trade accounting for securities is less complicated with a new entity since there are no opening-year manual entries for WS losses deferred from the prior year-end.

Trade Section 1256 contracts and other financial instruments that are not considered securities for tax purposes. Learn about Section 1256 contracts in my blog post: Trading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages.

The following financial instruments are not securities or 1256 contracts: ETN prepaid forward contracts, cryptocurrencies, precious metals, forex, and swap contracts. Only securities are subject to wash sale loss adjustments.

GNM CPAs Darren Neuschwander, Christie Kam, and Amanda Smitson contributed to this blog post.

Learn more about wash sale loss rules in Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide.

Watch Out Cryptocurrency Owners, The IRS Is On The Hunt

July 31, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

The massive tax bust of crypto owners has begun with the IRS mailing 10,000 letters to crypto account owners. These letters educate crypto account holders about the rules and tell taxpayers to review their tax reporting for crypto transactions to be sure they reported income correctly. If necessary, taxpayers should file amended tax returns and or late returns. These tax returns should be marked with the corresponding letter type (i.e., Letter 6173, 6174 or 6174-A) and mailed to a particular IRS address. In other words, these tax filings won’t be a needle in the haystack and the IRS will take a close look. Many audits may follow.

IRS Letter 6173

“We have information that you have or had one or more accounts containing virtual currency and may not have met your U.S. tax filing and reporting requirements for transactions involving virtual currency, which include cryptocurrency and non-crypto virtual currencies.”

The IRS might know there is unreported income based on tax information obtained through enforcement actions, which include the summons against U.S. Coinbase customers. You received the letter because you didn’t file a tax return, which should have included virtual currency transactions. Alternatively, you filed a return but did not report virtual currency transactions. You must reply to this tax notice by submitting a correct late tax return or an amended return. If you disagree with the IRS, the letter requires a full explanation with a signed statement declared under penalties of perjury.

Letter 6173 is a severe tax notice, and you should not dig yourself into a bigger hole with an incorrect reply. In some cases, perjury could be a felony. The letter states, “If we don’t hear from you by the “respond by” date we may refer your tax account for examination.”

I wonder how the IRS will conduct its audits of virtual currency transactions. They will need a list of all coin exchanges and private wallets and probably have to use trade accounting software in the same way a taxpayer would.

IRS Letter 6174

“We have information that you have or had one or more accounts containing virtual currency but may not know the requirements for reporting transactions involving virtual currency, which include cryptocurrency and non-crypto virtual currencies. After reviewing the (educational) information below, if you believe you didn’t accurately report your virtual currency transactions on a federal income tax return, you should file amended returns or delinquent returns if you didn’t file a return for one or more taxable years.”

The key phrase is that the taxpayer “may not know” crypto tax treatment. It sounds like the IRS does not have sufficient information indicating unreported income. Letter 6174 is an “educational letter,” and it states, “you do not need to respond to this letter.” If you received this tax notice, then you should review your crypto tax reporting and consider filing an amended tax return, if appropriate. Consider the IRS advice a warning shot across your bow.

Letter 6174-A

“We have information that you have or had one or more accounts containing virtual currency but may not have properly reported your transactions involving virtual currency, which include cryptocurrency and non-crypto virtual currencies. After reviewing the information below, if you believe you didn’t accurately report your virtual currency transactions on a federal income tax return, you should file amended returns or delinquent returns if you didn’t file a return for one or more taxable years. You do not need to respond to this letter.”

The critical phrase is “may not have properly reported.” That’s different from Letter 6173, which states “may not have met” your tax requirements. Letter 6174-A implies the taxpayer reported crypto transactions, but perhaps not in the proper way. For example, maybe the taxpayer used Schedule C (business income) instead of Form 8949 (capital gains). Perhaps they used like-kind exchanges, and the IRS might not allow that. Conversely, Letter 6173 indicates the taxpayer did not report crypto transactions at all.

The IRS has various types of tax information for virtual currency account owners, and it selected the letter that best matched their knowledge base. The IRS is also using third-party services to obtain more tax information. It’s wise to come clean now if you know you have errors in reporting crypto transactions. Historically, taxpayers have performed better in seeking abatement of penalties if they come forward to the IRS before getting busted first.

Civil and criminal prosecution and FBAR reporting
The IRS stressed, “Taxpayers who do not properly report the income tax consequences of virtual currency transactions are, when appropriate, liable for tax, penalties, and interest. In some cases, taxpayers could be subject to criminal prosecution.” The IRS sent mob boss Al Capone to prison for tax evasion, which was less challenging than indicting him for unlawful bootlegging. Learn about accuracy-related penalties and what constitutes reasonable cause for reduction of penalties.

The IRS Virtual Currency Compliance campaign reminds me of IRS initiatives to hunt down hidden offshore bank and brokerage accounts. FATCA legislation forced foreign banks into reporting on U.S. resident accounts. The IRS Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) helped taxpayers come clean with voluntary reporting. That led to reduced penalties, which otherwise were onerous. Some tax cheats used foreign bank accounts to conceal business income from the IRS. Others protected assets with offshore structures and only did not correctly report portfolio income.

In retrospect, it seems the IRS made a mistake in (unofficially) waiving foreign bank account report FinCEN 114 and Form 8938 for offshore virtual currency accounts. Virtual currency is “property,” which did not meet the requirements for FinCEN 114 and Form 8938 (Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets). There are significant penalties for not filing FinCEN 114 (previously known as FBAR) on time with the U.S. Treasury. Once you put Treasury on notice of owning these accounts, it dissuades you from hiding income from the IRS on those same accounts.

Coin-to-coin exchanges
In the educational section of these IRS letters, it states that crypto-to-crypto trades (i.e., Bitcoin for Ether) are taxable capital gains. The letter does not mention Section 1031 or like-kind exchanges being allowed on pre-2018 trades. (The new tax law TCJA restricted like-kind exchanges to real property only, starting in 2018.) Many crypto traders did not report deferred capital gains on coin-to-coin trades. Some may have, but they omitted the required Form 8824.

I’ve questioned whether coin-to-coin trades qualify for like-kind exchange treatment in years before 2018. Different types of virtual currencies might not be eligible as like-kind property, and coin exchanges are not qualified intermediaries. Multi-party like-kind exchanges require both.

Tax information statements and trade accounting
The IRS letters say to report all transactions whether tax information statements (Form 1099) were sent, or not, for crypto accounts held in the U.S., or abroad. Cryptocurrencies are “property,” not a “security,” so it’s not a “covered security” for purposes of 1099-B reporting. Coinbase, the largest U.S. crypto exchange, appeased the IRS during their fight for obtaining taxpayer information, by issuing a Form 1099-K for larger accounts. The IRS intended Form 1099-K for third-party network transactions for merchants; not traders or investors. Only U.S. exchanges might provide 1099-Ks. Coinbase also provided capital gain and loss reports for later years.

Taxpayers should consider using a trade accounting solution or software program to download virtual currency transactions from all coin exchanges and private wallets. Many crypto owners have accounts around the world, and accounting issues are more challenging when trading on margin. The IRS will likely use this same software in an exam.

Additional IRS guidance coming soon
The IRS keeps promising to publish further advice on crypto tax treatment soon. Why did they send 10,000 education letters if they plan to update their education guidance shortly? Perhaps, it would have been better to publish updated guidance before mailing them. This letter campaign seems a bit like a fishing expedition: The IRS wants more tax returns to analyze before it tackles tax treatment issues further.

Additional guidance is expected to address like-kind exchanges; chain splits, permissible accounting methods, wash sales, Section 475, and more. The AICPA issued a letter containing suggested questions and answers. The basics are clear, and the delay in additional guidance is no excuse for non-compliance.

IRS data analytics
The IRS said it would continue to use data analytics, and perhaps other blockchain technology to uncover more non-compliant crypto taxpayers. The IRS successfully used an independent company Chainalysis on recovering tax information from U.S. Coinbase customers. That may have been one of the sources for this first batch of 10,000 account letters.

What tax evaders didn’t initially realize is that virtual currencies may not be an ideal medium of exchange for concealing income and assets from tax authorities. Unlike using cash (dollar bills), blockchain is a distributed ledger which is available to the public. Non-crypto virtual currency may have a private company centralized ledger, but the IRS might be able to get that through a summons, too. AI, blockchain tools, and crypto trade accounting programs will help the IRS bust crypto tax evaders and taxpayers who are honest but misinformed.

Takeaway
This IRS letter campaign is just the beginning of virtual currency enforcement activities to come. You should take this opportunity to get fully educated, review your reporting, and be sure you are tax compliant. Pay tax liabilities and interest expenses, and then seek abatement of penalties when assessed. Some crypto users might try to claim ignorance or argue they received terrible tax advice. Others might assert that the crypto tax rules were too vague and uncertain at the time of filing. Some tax treatment issues are unknown (i.e., like-kind exchanges and hard forks), but the basics are clear. After receiving these education letters, which are warning shots, there are no grounds for continued non-compliance.

Consult a crypto tax expert immediately after receiving any of the above IRS letters. The CPA can reply to Letter 6173 soon and request more time to file amended returns. The 2018 tax return deadlines are coming up on September 15, 2019, for entities, and October 15 for individuals. Plan to work with your CPA after those dates on amended tax return filings.

Breaking news and more resources

IRS IR-2019-132: IRS has begun sending letters to virtual currency owners advising them to pay back taxes, file amended returns; part of agency’s larger efforts. 

WSJ quotes my partner in IRS Sending Warning Letters to More Than 10,000 Cryptocurrency Holders. “When it comes to preparing tax returns involving cryptocurrencies, Darren Neuschwander, a certified public accountant, said many tax preparers are frustrated because the IRS has long promised new guidance on cryptocurrencies that it hasn’t yet released.” “It’s ironic that the IRS is issuing these letters because we’re still waiting to know more rules,” he said.

IRS Sends Out 10,000 Letters to Virtual Currency Investors, Some of Which Demand a Response, By Ed Zollars CPA for Kaplan Financial Education.

Blockchain Analytics Firm Chainalysis Outlines User Data Policy Amid Coinbase Allegations in CoinTelegraph.

The IRS Has Special Software to Find Bitcoin Tax Cheats. Fortune.com

GreenTraderTax cryptocurrency resources:
Tax Center
Blog posts on cryptocurrencies
Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide
Trade accounting service for cryptocurrencies

Darren Neuschwander CPA contributed to this blog post.

 

How To Structure A Trading Business For Significant Tax Savings

June 26, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

If you actively trade securities, futures, forex or crypto, consider setting up a trading business to maximize tax benefits. With a sole proprietorship, a trader eligible for trader tax status (TTS) can deduct business and home-office expenses and make a timely Section 475 election on securities for tax loss insurance and a potential qualified business income (QBI) deduction. By forming an LLC taxed as an S-Corp, a TTS trader can also deduct health insurance premiums and a retirement plan contribution. An investor without TTS cannot get any of these tax benefits.

The new tax law (TCJA) severely limits itemized deductions for investors, while expanding the standard deduction and improving business expensing. TCJA also introduced a 20% deduction on QBI, which includes a TTS trading business with Section 475 income but excludes capital gains and portfolio income. With TCJA, TTS and Section 475 are more valuable than ever before.

Table for choosing a TTS trading business structure

Sole proprietorship
An individual TTS trader deducts business expenses and home office deductions on a Schedule C (Profit or Loss From Business – Sole Proprietorship), which is part of a Form 1040 filing. Schedule C losses are an above-the-line deduction from gross income.

It’s easy to set up a sole proprietorship. First, open an individual brokerage account(s) in the trader’s name and social security number. You don’t need a separate employer identification number (EIN) unless you plan to have employees on the payroll. You can also use a joint individual account but list the trader’s name and social security number first. There is no state filing required for a sole proprietorship as there is for organizing an LLC or incorporating a corporation. You also don’t need a “doing business as” (DBA) name, although you can obtain one if you prefer. There isn’t a federal or state tax election for claiming TTS — it’s determined based on facts and circumstances assessed at year-end.

Don’t confuse TTS with a Section 475 election. Only TTS traders can use Section 475 ordinary gain or loss treatment; however, many TTS traders don’t make a 475 election. TTS is like undergraduate school, and Section 475 is like graduate school: The former is needed to get into the latter, but undergraduates don’t necessarily elect to go on to graduate school. For example, a TTS futures trader might skip a 475 election to retain lower 60/40 capital gains rates on 1256 contracts. You can elect Section 475 on securities only, commodities only, or both.

Here’s an example: An active trader realized in mid-2019 that he qualified for TTS for all of 2018. He can add a Schedule C to his 2018 Form 1040 tax return due on an extension by Oct. 15, 2019. (Traders can use TTS on amended tax returns, too.) A Schedule C provides tax benefits for 2018 and year-to-date in 2019. This trader wants to form an S-Corp later in 2019 to unlock a health insurance deduction for the remainder of 2019 and a high-deductible retirement plan deduction. He realized he qualified for TTS after April 15, so was too late to elect 475 on the individual level for 2019. But a new S-Corp can select Section 475 within 75 days of inception so that the trader will be exempt from wash-sale loss adjustments at year-end 2019.

Section 475 tax benefits
TTS traders are entitled to make a Section 475 election, but investors are excluded from it. I call it “tax loss insurance” because the election exempts securities trades from onerous wash-sale loss adjustments, which can defer tax losses to the subsequent year, and the $3,000 capital loss limitation. Ordinary loss treatment is far better; it can generate tax refunds faster than capital loss carryovers.

A partnership or S-Corp formed during the tax year is considered a “new taxpayer,” which can elect Section 475 internally within 75 days of inception. An individual TTS trader had to choose Section 475 with the IRS by April 15, 2019, so a new partnership or S-Corp comes in handy after the April 15 deadline. An existing taxpayer must also file a Form 3115 (Application for Change in Accounting Method), whereas a new taxpayer adopts 475 from inception, so this filing isn’t necessary.

Prior capital-loss carryovers on the individual level still carry over on Schedule Ds. The new entity can pass through capital gains if the taxpayer skips the Section 475 MTM election to use up those capital loss carryovers. Then, the entity can elect Section 475 MTM in a subsequent tax year. It’s easy to revoke a 475 election in a manner that mirrors making a 475 election.

The qualified business income deduction
TCJA introduced a tax benefit for pass-through businesses, which includes a TTS trader with Section 475 income; whether doing business as a sole proprietor, partnership, or S-Corp. Section 199A provides a 20% QBI deduction on a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB), and TTS trading is an SSTB. However, SSTBs are subject to a taxable income threshold, phase-out range, and income cap. The phase-out range has wage and property limitations, too. Also, the 20% deduction is on whichever is lower: QBI or taxable income minus “net capital gains” defined as net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses, and qualified dividends. It’s a complicated deduction, and most traders won’t get a QBI deduction. QBI includes Section 475 ordinary income and trading business expenses and excludes capital gains and losses, dividends, interest income, forex and swap ordinary income, and investment expenses.

For 2019, the taxable income (TI) cap is $421,400/$210,700 (married/other taxpayers). The phase-out range below the cap is $100,000/$50,000 (married/other taxpayers). The TI threshold is $321,400/$160,700 (married/other taxpayers).

Pass-through entities
A pass-through entity means the company is a tax filer, but it’s not a taxpayer. The owners are the taxpayers, most often on their tax returns. Taxpayers should consider marriage, state residence, and state tax rules, including annual reports, minimum taxes, franchise taxes, excise taxes, and more when setting up an entity. In most states, these taxes are nominal costs. (In Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide, I address state taxes for S-Corps in California, Illinois, other states, and New York City.)

Partnerships
A trader can organize a spousal LLC and file as a partnership. Alternatively, the trader can form a marital general partnership without liability protection afforded by an LLC. Partnerships file a Form 1065 partnership tax return. Establishing a separate legal entity does not alone generate tax benefits; it’s critical for the organization to qualify for TTS. Otherwise, the company is considered an investment company with suspended investment fees and expenses. An investment partnership cannot have business expenses, officer compensation, and employee benefits, including health insurance and retirement plans.

A TTS trading partnership may deduct business expenses, which the partnership Schedule K-1 reports in line one (“ordinary business income/loss”). The individual owner deducts business expenses. If the partnership agreement provides for it, the partner can also deduct “unreimbursed partnership expenses” (UPE) including home office expenses, on Schedule E page 2 (Supplemental Income and Loss). The amounts are entered on the “non-passive income” column since a TTS loss is exempt from Section 469 passive activity loss rules under the “trading rule” exception.

A partnership tax return looks better to the IRS vs. a Schedule C with different tax forms for trading gains and losses. The partnership return consolidates Section 475 ordinary income/loss with business expenses in line one of Schedule K-1. Partnership capital gains are easy to see on the partnership Schedule K and K-1. On the contrary, there is a red flag with a Schedule C displaying business expenses. Individual-level trading gains and losses are on other tax forms: Form 8949 for capital gains and losses, Form 6781 for Section 1256 capital gains and losses using 60/40 treatment and Form 4797 Part II ordinary gain or loss for Section 475 trades. It’s hard for the IRS to decipher TTS items from investments on an individual tax return. Sole proprietors should use a well-crafted tax return footnote to explain the correlation of a TTS Schedule C with the other tax forms for trading gains and losses.

A partnership (or S-Corp) helps segregate investment positions from TTS/Section 475 trading positions. If you trade substantially-identical positions that you also invest in, it could invite the IRS to play havoc with the reclassification of TTS vs. investment positions. Using a TTS company prevents the IRS from reclassifying TTS positions out of Section 475 ordinary loss treatment into a capital loss limitation on investment positions. And, it prevents the IRS from reclassifying unrealized long-term capital gains on investment positions into TTS/475 MTM ordinary income on TTS positions. Traders cannot use portfolio margining between an entity and an individual account, so they carefully weigh the use of portfolio margining vs. Section 475.

S-Corps
Taxpayers cannot directly create an S-Corp; instead, it’s a tax election. Organize an LLC or incorporate a corporation, and the entity has the option to file an IRS Form 2553 (Election by a Small Business Corporation) within 75 days of inception. Alternatively, in a subsequent year, the S-Corp election is due by March 15. All the owners must be U.S. residents. Most states accept the federal S-Corp election, although some states including but not limited to New York and New Jersey require a separate state election. There is IRS relief for late S-Corp elections; however, you had to have the intention of making the S-Corp election on a timely basis.

New S-Corps (and partnerships) can elect Section 475 within 75 days of inception.

Unlike a partnership, an S-Corp doesn’t require two or more owners. An unmarried trader can form a single-member LLC to elect S-Corp status. Otherwise, a single-member LLC is a “disregarded entity” (a “tax nothing” in the eyes of the IRS), which takes you back to using sole proprietor status on a Schedule C.

The essential tax benefit of an S-Corp is to arrange tax deductions for health insurance premiums and a high-deductible retirement plan contribution through officer compensation.

Sole proprietors and partnerships cannot achieve these employee-benefit deductions in connection with trading income. A Schedule C cannot pay the owner wages, and partnerships should use “guaranteed payments” instead of salaries. Partnership expenses flow through, including a guaranteed payment, creating negative self-employment income (SEI). That makes a health insurance and retirement plan deduction challenging to achieve for a TTS partnership. Conversely, S-Corps don’t pass through negative SEI, and the employee benefit deductions work tax efficiently.

S-Corp health insurance premiums
TTS traders with significant self-employed health insurance (HI) premiums should consider an S-Corp to arrange a tax deduction through officer compensation; otherwise, they cannot deduct HI.

Not everyone needs a health insurance deduction, but if you do, crunch the numbers. An S-Corp is worthwhile if the HI tax deduction is meaningful, and the tax savings exceed the entity costs of formation and maintenance. A retirement plan deduction adds icing on the cake.

Examples: An unmarried futures trader living in a tax-free state might be in the lowest two tax brackets of 10% and 12%, after taking the standard deduction. With 60/40 treatment on Section 1256 contracts, her blended tax rate is 4% and 4.8%. If her HI deduction is $3,600, then the tax savings is $173. That’s far less than the cost of maintaining an S-Corp. A payroll service provider might cost $600 per year.

On the other hand, a married securities trader in a high-tax state might have a $24,000 HI deduction for family coverage, and with a 40% combined federal and state tax bracket, the tax savings for the HI deduction is $9,600. An S-Corp is a good idea for this trader.

The health insurance deduction is complicated for officer/owners: Add health insurance premiums paid by the entity or individually during the entity period to wages in box one on the officer/owner’s W-2. The health insurance amount in salary is not subject to payroll taxes, so omit this amount from Social Security wages in box 3, and Medicare wages in box five. The officer deducts health insurance premiums as an adjusted gross income (AGI) deduction on his Form 1040 personal tax return. The taxpayer deducts non-owner employees’ health insurance on the S-Corp tax return directly as “insurance expense.”

S-Corp retirement plan contributions
Taxpayers need self-employment income (SEI) to make and deduct retirement plan contributions; however, trading income is not SEI. (The exception is a full-fledged dealer/member of an options or futures exchange, trading Section 1256 contracts on that exchange.) There are tax costs and benefits to SEI: It triggers SE tax but also unlocks a HI and retirement plan deduction. SE tax is the same as payroll tax (FICA and Medicare), which I explain below.

A TTS trader uses an S-Corp to pay officer compensation for these employee benefit deductions. The trader is in control of how much to run through payroll, picking an amount to maximize employee benefit deductions but not to pay too much in the payroll tax.

You should fund retirement plan contributions from net income, not losses. It’s best to wait on the execution of an annual paycheck until early December when there is transparency for the year. A trader should not have a base salary throughout the year. Some traders make money during the year, only to lose it before year-end.

If you have sufficient trading profits by Q4, consider establishing a Solo 401(k) retirement plan before year-end. It’s a defined contribution plan; start with the 100% deductible elective deferral (ED; $19,000 for 2019) and pay it through payroll since it’s reported on the annual W-2. Add the ED to Social Security wages and Medicare wages on the W-2 but not taxable wages in box 1, as that is where the tax benefit (deduction) is. The gross wage ED component is subject to payroll taxes, and the S-Corp tax return has a deduction for gross wages. Taxpayers 50 years and older have a “catch up provision” of $6,000, raising the ED limit to $25,000 per year.

If you have large trading gains, consider increasing payroll in December for a performance-based bonus to unlock a 25% deductible Solo 401(k) profit-sharing plan (PSP) contribution that you don’t have to pay into the retirement plan until the due date of the S-Corp tax return (including extensions by Sept. 15). The maximum PSP amount is $37,000. The total limit for a Solo 401(k) is $62,000 ($19,000 ED, $6,000 catch-up ED, and $37,000 PSP). The S-Corp tax return deducts the PSP.

A “traditional” retirement plan is tax deductible, and the related wages are subject to a payroll tax, which includes 12.4% FICA up to the SSA base of $132,900 for 2019, plus 2.9% Medicare tax without a base limit. If the trader is in a high tax bracket, then the income tax savings can well exceed the payroll tax cost, which is also 50% deductible. Crunch the numbers in December for year-end tax planning and consider whether you can afford to save this cash flow until retirement, starting at age 59½ for required minimum distributions.

As an example: Assume an unmarried trader, age 51, has S-Corp net trading income of approximately $225,000 and individual taxable income of $200,000. That puts her in a 32% marginal federal tax bracket, and she lives in a tax-free state. On officer compensation of $25,000, she contributes the maximum Solo 401(k) ED of $25,000, saving $8,000 in federal income taxes. Her payroll tax on $25,000 wages is $3,825, which is 50% tax deductible, so it generates additional income tax savings of $612. She has federal unemployment insurance (FUI) of $50 and is exempt from state workmen’s compensation insurance. Her net overall tax savings is $4,737. She will enjoy tax-free compounding of growth in the retirement plan until she must begin taking required minimum distributions by age 70½, which is taxable income at ordinary rates.

Consider a Roth Solo 401(k) contribution in the years when you can skip an income tax deduction. Roth plans are permanently tax-free for growth and contributions. Early withdrawals can trigger a 10% excise tax penalty. If you have another job with annual wages over the SSA base, then TTS S-Corp wages will convert new FICA to a federal tax credit, since the IRS does not double-charge FICA on a Form 1040. This credit gives a nice incentive to consider a Roth plan.

S-Corp payroll
To arrange employee benefits including health insurance and retirement plan deductions through an S-Corp, you’ll need to pay officer compensation through a formal payroll before year-end. You’ll likely need to engage a payroll service provider for payroll tax compliance. (Our firm works with a dedicated team at Paychex for a price of approximately $600 per year.) If you don’t need employee benefits in a given tax year, you can skip paying officer compensation for that year. IRS “reasonable compensation” rules for S-Corps probably don’t apply to traders since the S-Corp has unearned income. However, the IRS could take the position that reasonable compensation is required in all cases. Once you begin a payroll, you must continue to file payroll tax returns quarterly and annually, even if they are zero returns due to no salary in any given period.

A payroll service includes quarterly payroll tax returns (Form 941), the annual payroll tax return (Form 940), state payroll tax returns and federal unemployment insurance with FUI tax of under $50 for the owner/trader. In most states, the trader/owner is exempt from state unemployment insurance and state workmen’s compensation. The payroll service provider also prepares the W-3s and W-2s

One benefit is you can withhold taxes from payroll in December and have them attributed to being made throughout the year. Take advantage of this tax loophole to reduce quarterly estimated tax payments during the year. Benefit from hindsight and use of the cash flow.

Avoid wash sales with an entity
Permanent wash-sale losses between individual taxable accounts and IRAs and deferred wash-sale losses inside and between taxable accounts significantly impact active investors.

Trading in an entity account might help avoid these problems. The entity is separate from the individual and IRA accounts for purposes of wash sales since it is a different taxpayer. The IRS is entitled to apply related party transaction rules (Section 267) if the entity purposely tries to avoid wash sales with the owner’s accounts. If the company qualifies for TTS, it can consider a Section 475 MTM election exempting it from wash sales (on business positions, not investment positions).

Trade accounting for securities is more comfortable with a new entity since there are no opening-year wash-sale loss adjustments to reverse from the prior year-end, which is sometimes difficult to determine.

Miscellaneous
S-Corps are more formal than partnerships. For example, a TTS trader needs to use an accountable reimbursement plan before year-end for reimbursing the officer’s business expenses. A partnership is less formal; it can use unreimbursed partnership expenses (UPE).

Form the pass-through entity in your state of residence since it passes income to that state, anyway. Don’t be fooled by asset-protection salesman promoting entity formation in tax-free jurisdictions. You live, work, and trade in your home state.

C-Corps are not ideal for traders since the IRS might charge a 20% accumulated earnings tax on top of the 21% flat tax. It’s hard for a trader to have a war chest plan to justify retaining earnings and profits (E&P). There’s double state taxation to consider, too. (See Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide.)

Some brokers charge higher professional rates for data feed fees on entity accounts, even though you don’t have investors. A sole proprietor individual account pays non-professional rates, which can save $125 or more per month depending on how many data vendors you have. Inquire about this issue with your brokers.

Qualifying for trader tax status
Many traders and tax advisers don’t fully comprehend TTS, including how to use it properly. Rather than deal with its many nuances, they skip TTS and overlook or miss the 475-election deadline. It’s sad to explain to new clients why they cannot deduct trading expenses and losses.

TTS is the linchpin for the related tax advantages of using an entity. Before forming a company, determine if you qualify for it. An entity does not deliver business expense treatment or automatically provide an opportunity for employee benefits. The organization must be eligible for TTS; otherwise, it’s an investment company like the majority of hedge funds.

To be eligible for claiming TTS, a trader needs approximately four total trades or more per day, trade executions on close to four days per week, with more than 15 total trades per week, 60 trades per month, and 720 trades per year (annualized), per the Poppe court. Average holding periods must be under 31 days per the Endicott court. There are several other factors including having material account size ($25,000 for pattern day trader designation on securities and $15,000 for other instruments), spending over four hours per day, having the intention to run a business to make a living, having trading computers and multiple monitors, and a dedicated home office.

If you have segregated investment positions, it’s better to house your TTS trading in a separate entity. Otherwise, the IRS might drag investment positions into the TTS analysis, which can lengthen holding periods over the 31-day requirement.

Investment vs. TTS business expenses
TCJA suspended all investment fees and costs except for two: investment-interest expense limited to investment income, and stock borrow fees, which are considered “other itemized deductions.” Many traders will use the roughly doubled standard deduction instead of itemized deductions, especially considering the SALT itemized deduction cap of $10,000. The 2019 standard deduction is $12,200 single and $24,400 married.

Trading commissions are not separate expenses; the broker deducts them from sales proceeds and adds them to cost-basis for purchases. Commissions are therefore part of trading gain or loss. With net capital gains, commissions are equivalent to a tax deduction; however, with a capital loss limitation, commissions are part of a capital loss carryover. This can’t be changed even with TTS.

TTS business expenses include expensing of computers, monitors, and mobile devices, home-office expenses if exclusively used for business, post-TTS commencement education costs, Section 195 startup costs including pre-business education going six months back, and Section 248 organization expenses. Additional expenses include data and market information services, subscriptions, charting and other software, platform fees, self-created algorithms and automated trading systems, margin interest, stock borrow fees, coaches, mentors, chatrooms, supplies, seminars, travel, meals, professional expenses including tax advice, and more.

A typical TTS trader has annual business expenses ranging between $5,000 and $25,000 per year. Expect higher costs if there are significant stock borrow fees, margin interest expenses, an outside office, staff, or using a Bloomberg terminal. Forex traders tend to have few costs.

With a TTS S-Corp, the health insurance deduction could range from a few thousand to $24,000 or more per year depending on if the trader is single, married, and has children with family coverage. It could be low with an Obamacare subsidy. A Solo 401(k) retirement plan deduction could be up to $62,000 per year per working spouse.

If you want an entity for 2019, you should set it up by the end of Q3. Come November, the window of opportunity closes as two months is too short a period for TTS and to build up employee benefits. In that case, form it in December to be ready for use Jan. 1, 2020.

Consider a 45-minute consultation to review eligibility for TTS, an entity formation plan, Section 475 election, and more. If an entity is a good idea for you, then consider our entity formation service. We also offer our tax compliance service, starting with year-end planning in December.

GNM CPAs Darren Neuschwander, and Adam Manning contributed to this blog post.

For more in-depth information on entities for traders, health insurance, retirement plans, trader tax status, Section 475, QBI and other issues discussed in this blog post, see Green’s 2019 Trader Tax Guide.

Attend our upcoming Webinars on this subject and watch the recording after.

A Rationale For Using QBI Tax Treatment For Traders

June 4, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

There are two opposing arguments made by tax professionals for applying Section 199A qualified business income (QBI) treatment on 2018 tax returns for traders with trader tax status (TTS).

Those for say Section 199A applies because Section 864(b)(2) is limited to nonresident traders only. U.S. resident TTS traders meet the requirements of Section 864(c)(3) “Other income from sources within United States.” As a result, a U.S. resident TTS trader has effectively connected income (ECI) and therefore, QBI. In this blog post, I refer to this stance as the affirmative or positive rationale.

Those against say Section 199A does not apply to U.S. resident TTS traders because Section 864(b)(2) applies to all traders. This scenario means that “trading for taxpayer’s own account” does not constitute ECI and therefore, QBI does not apply. In this blog post, I refer to this stance as the contrary or negative argument.

Here is what we know. Section 199A labeled TTS trading a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB). The contrary argument would lead to conflict: Why would 199A recognize TTS trading as an SSTB, if 864(b)(2) denied a QBI deduction to U.S. resident TTS traders? With the positive rationale, QBI includes TTS trading business expenses and Section 475 ordinary income/loss. QBI expressly excludes capital gains/losses, interest and dividend income, and forex and swap contract ordinary income/loss. A taxable income threshold, phase-in range, and income cap apply to SSTBs, which leads to some high-income taxpayers not receiving a 20% QBI deduction. (The QBI deduction rules are complex and beyond the scope of this blog post.)

Many traders filed 2018 tax extensions on March 15 (entities) and April 15 (individuals). Their tax preparers are waiting to resolve uncertainty over this issue before the tax return deadlines of Sept. 16, 2019, for partnerships and S-Corps and Oct. 15, 2019, for individual sole proprietorships.

A positive rationale to apply 199A to U.S. resident TTS traders
If you search the 199A final regs, you will find mention of 864(c) beneath the heading “Interaction of Sections 875(1) and 199A.” Section 875(1) states “a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation shall be considered as being engaged in a trade or business within the United States if the partnership of which such individual or corporation is a member is so engaged.”

199A regs state, “Section 199A(c)(3)(A)(i) provides that for purposes of determining QBI, the term qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss means items of income, gain, deduction and loss to the extent such items are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864(c), determined by substituting ‘qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A’ for ‘nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation’ or for ‘a foreign corporation’ each place it appears).”

A U.S. resident TTS trader meets the definition of Section 864(c)(3) “Other income from sources within United States.”

“All income, gain, or loss from sources within the United States (other than income, gain, or loss to which paragraph (2) applies) shall be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.”

A U.S. resident TTS trader has Section 162 trade or business expenses. It’s consistent with 199A stating a TTS trading activity is an SSTB.

A U.S. resident TTS trader also meets the definition of 864(c)(2) “Periodical, etc., income from sources within United States—factors.”

“In determining whether income from sources within the United States of the types described in section 871(a)(1), section 871(h) , section 881(a), or section 881(c), or whether gain or loss from sources within the United States from the sale or exchange of capital assets, is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, the factors taken into account shall include whether—

(A) The income, gain, or loss is derived from assets used in or held for use in the conduct of such trade or business, or

(B) The activities of such trade or business were a material factor in the realization of the income, gain, or loss. In determining whether an asset is used in or held for use in the conduct of such trade or business or whether the activities of such trade or business were a material factor in realizing an item of income, gain, or loss, due regard shall be given to whether or not such asset or such income, gain, or loss was accounted for through such trade or business.”

A U.S. resident TTS trading business uses the capital for the sale of capital assets to derive its income, and money is a material factor.

Section 871(a)(2) provides that a nonresident individual residing in the U.S. for more than 183 days per year is subject to a 30% tax on U.S.-source capital gains. (A tax treaty may provide relief.)

Some accountants think that Section 864(b)(2) prevents all traders, U.S. residents, and nonresidents, from using QBI treatment.

“Section 864(b) – the term a “trade or business within the U.S.” does not include:

Section 864(b)(1) – Performance of personal services for foreign employer.

Section 864(b)(2) – Trading in securities or commodities.

(A): Stocks and securities.
(i)   In general. Trading in stocks or securities through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other independent agent.
(ii)   Trading for taxpayer’s own account. Trading in stocks or securities for the taxpayer’s own account, whether by the taxpayer or his employees or through a resident broker, commission agent, custodian, or other agent, and whether or not any such employee or agent has discretionary authority to make decisions in effecting the transactions. This clause shall not apply in the case of a dealer in stocks or securities.
(C) Limitation. Subparagraphs (A)(i) and (B)(i) (for commodities) shall apply only if, at no time during the taxable year, the taxpayer has an office or other fixed place of business in the United States through which or by the direction of which the transactions in stocks or securities, or in commodities, as the case may be, are effected.”

The (C) Limitation relates to (i) nonresident investors engaging a U.S. broker. This exception applies if the nonresident does not have an office in the U.S. The exemption does not apply to (ii) “trading for taxpayer’s own account.”

In the 1.864-2 reg, there are several examples under “trading for taxpayer’s own account,” and all of the cases are for nonresident individuals and nonresident partnerships. If you read 864(b)(2)(A)(ii) as applying to nonresidents only, then it supports the affirmative rationale for using 199A on U.S. resident TTS traders.

Reg § 1.864-2(a) states:

“(a) In general. As used in part I (section 861 and following) and part II (section 871 and following), subchapter N, chapter 1 of the Code, and chapter 3 (section 1441 and following) of the Code, and the regulations thereunder, the term “engaged in trade or business within the United States” does not include the activities described in paragraphs (c) (trading in stocks or securities) and (d) (trading in commodities) of this section, but includes the performance of personal services within the United States at any time within the taxable year except to the extent otherwise provided in this section.”

The code sections in this heading are all for nonresidents:
861 – Income from sources within the United States
871 – Tax on nonresident alien individuals
Subchapter N – Tax based on income from sources within or without the United States
Chapter 3 – Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations
1441: Withholding and reporting requirements for payments to a foreign person

Reg § 1.864-2(c) is for “trading in stocks or securities,” and (d) is for “trading in commodities.” Those sections discuss nonresident individuals and nonresident partnerships with U.S. brokerage accounts and explain that no matter how significant the volume of trades, that a nonresident trader does not have ECI in the U.S. This reg displays several examples, and all of them are for nonresidents. Again, this reg and related code Section 864(b)(2) is for nonresident traders only. A U.S. resident TTS trader is covered in Section 864(c), not in Section 864(b)(2).

The essential point is that the 199A regs do not state to “substitute qualified trade or business for nonresident or foreign” in Section 864(b) – so that code section remains applicable to nonresident traders only. The 199A regs required this substitution for 864(c) only.

Tax attorney Johnny Lyle J.D. weighs in:

“To read IRC Section 864(b) into the equation, you have to determine that the language ‘In the case of a qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A) engaged in trade or business within the United States during the taxable year…’ requires you to determine ‘qualified trade or business under Section 199A,’ but then turn around and determine ‘trade or business within the United States’ under IRC Section 864(b),” Lyle said.

Further, Treasury Regulation Section 1.864-4, titled “U.S. source income effectively connected with U.S. business” states: “This section applies only to a nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States at some time during a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1966, and to the income, gain, or loss of such person from sources within the United States.”

Treasury Regulation Section 1.864-2, titled “Trade or business within the United States” uses only nonresident aliens and foreign corporations in its examples.

Lyle said two arguments could be made regarding Congress using the language specifically referencing IRC Section 864(c) in IRC Section 199A. First, if Congress wanted to incorporate Section 864(b) into the equation, it would have said effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864) without reference to 864(c). Second, under the Treasury Regulations, 864(b) only applies to nonresident aliens. Therefore, the restriction in 864(b)(2)(A)(ii) would only apply to nonresident aliens, and a taxpayer who was a day trader, but not a nonresident alien, would not be excluded from ECI.

“If Congress intended to exclude all trader income, it would have done so under IRC Section 199A(c)(3)(B) rather than a more roundabout, back door way, rendering IRC Section 199A(d)(2)(B) meaningless,” Lyle said. “If Congress wanted to specifically incorporate Section 864(b), it would have worded it this way: …effectively connected (within the meaning of section 864(c)) with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States (within the meaning of section 864(b)), determined by substituting ‘qualified trade or business (within the meaning of section 199A)’ for ‘nonresident alien individual or a foreign corporation’ or for ‘a foreign corporation’ each place it appears.”

It gives me some pause that some big-four accountants prepared a few 2018 hedge fund partnership K-1s without applying 199A tax treatment. Their K-1 notes indicated reliance on Sections 864(c) and or 864(b) to skip the application of 199A. When we asked some big-four tax partners for clarification, they said they were not wedded to that position. Did these accountants take an easy way out, by reading Section 864(b)(2) out of context? The hedge fund investors would have been hurt with QBI treatment since they would have QBI losses from TTS trading business expenses. The hedge fund had capital gains, which QBI excludes. The hedge fund did not elect Section 475 ordinary income or loss, which QBI includes.

On the other side of the debate, I’ve seen some K-1s from proprietary trading firms, and all of those K-1s did report 199A information. They reported QBI income since they elected Section 475 on securities. I asked their tax preparers about it, and they said 864(b)(2) applies to foreign partnerships, not these U.S. trading partnerships.

I spoke with a tax attorney in IRS Office of Chief Counsel listed on the Section 199A regs, and he thought the positive rationale makes sense. He even accommodated my request to add Section 475 by name to inclusion in QBI in the final 199A regs. The IRS attorney did not raise Section 864(c) or 864(b)(2) as being a problem for U.S. resident TTS traders.

It’s time to complete 2018 tax returns even with remaining uncertainty. I suggest that U.S. resident TTS traders, living, working, and trading in the U.S. consider applying 199A to their trading business. Consult your tax advisor.

CPAs Darren Neuschwander and Adam Manning, and tax attorney Johnny Lyle contributed to this blog post.

See my prior blog posts on 199A for traders at https://greentradertax.com/uncertainty-about-using-qbi-tax-treatment-for-traders/

Trading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages

May 30, 2019 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

There are various types of financial products with different tax treatments, and Section 1256 contracts have the best overall tax advantages.

Tax treatment of financial products affects investors, traders, and hedge funds. But sadly, many tax preparers overlook essential differences in tax treatment for these groups, resulting in overpayments. Education is key.

It’s important to distinguish between securities vs. Section 1256 contracts with lower 60/40 capital gains rates vs. other types of financial products like forex or swaps with ordinary income or loss treatment. Plus, there are various elections available to change tax treatment.

Capital gains vs. ordinary income
Most financial instruments — including securities, Section 1256 contracts, options, ETFs, ETNs, indexes, precious metals, and cryptocurrencies held as a capital asset — are subject to capital gains treatment. However, some of these financial products qualify as Section 1256 contracts with lower 60/40 capital gains rates.

By default, forex contracts and swap contracts are subject to ordinary gain or loss treatment. The distinction between ordinary and capital gains treatment makes a big difference. The capital-loss limitation is a problem for traders and investors who may have trouble using up large capital-loss carryovers in subsequent tax years. There is a Section 1256 loss carryback election.

Traders with trader tax status (TTS) and a Section 475 MTM election have business ordinary-loss treatment, which is more likely to generate tax savings or refunds faster than capital loss carryovers.

60/40 capital gains rates
Section 1256 contracts have lower 60/40 tax rates, meaning 60% (including day trades) are taxed at the lower long-term capital gains rate, and 40% are taxed at the short-term rate, which is the ordinary tax rate.

At the maximum tax brackets for 2018 and 2019, the top Section 1256 contract tax rate is 26.8% —10.2% lower than the highest ordinary rate of 37%. Section 1256 tax rates are 4.2% to 12% lower vs. ordinary rates depending on which tax bracket applies.

For example: Make $100,000 in 1256 contracts in the 35% ordinary bracket, and save $12,000 (12%) with 60/40 rates.

For 2018 and 2019, there is meaningful tax rate reduction throughout the brackets, including zero long-term rates in the 10% and 12% ordinary brackets.

See Section 1256 tax rates vs. ordinary rates (2018 & 2019 rates). State tax rates apply; they do not include a long-term rate.

Trading income is not self-employment income (SEI) for triggering SE tax (FICA and Medicare). Traders who are full members of a futures or options exchange are an exception here; they have self-employment income under Section 1402(i) on their exchange-generated trading gains reported on Form 6781.

List of 1256 contracts

U.S. futures contracts:
- Regulated futures contracts (RFCs) on a qualified board or exchange (QBE).
- U.S. RFCs on commodities (food, energies, and metals), stock indexes, financials (U.S. Treasuries and bonds), currencies, and more.
- Options on U.S. futures (RFCs).
- Foreign futures with CFTC and IRS approval. (Only a handful of exchanges currently have this IRS revenue ruling, including Eurex, LIFFE, ICE Futures Europe, and ICE Futures Canada, see blog post).

Broad-based indexes:
- Broad-based indexes are stock index futures made up of 10 or more underlying securities.
- Options on broad-based indexes are also 1256 contracts.
- Broad-based indexes are taxed differently from exchange-traded funds (ETFs), which are securities.
- The S&P 500 Index (CBOE: SPX) is listed on a commodities exchange, taxed as a Section 1256 contract.
- The SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (NYSEARCA: SPY) is listed on a securities exchange, taxed as a security.

Other Section 1256 contracts:
- Options on commodities/futures ETFs taxed as publicly traded partnerships. (Options on securities ETFs are securities.)
- CBOE-listed options on volatility ETNs structured as prepaid forward contracts (the ETN itself is not Section 1256).
- Non-equity options. (Be careful in using this catchall.)
- Forex forward contracts on major currencies, if the taxpayer filed a Section 988 opt-out election to use Section 1256(g) (we make a case for forex spot in major currencies, too).
- Forex OTC options (Wright tax court case).

Mark-to-market accounting
Section 1256 contracts use mark-to-market (MTM) accounting daily. For income tax purposes, MTM means gain/loss calculations report both realized activity from throughout the year, and unrealized gains and losses on open trading positions at year-end. The broker 1099-B also reverses unrealized amounts from the prior year.

With MTM, wash sale (WS) loss adjustments are a moot point; hence, WS apply to securities, only, not 1256 contracts. With MTM, traders don’t have to do “tax loss selling” at year-end, since they will report the unrealized losses, anyway. Many traders have small or no open positions on Section 1256 contracts at year-end.

It might be hard to find an accurate MTM price for valuing long-term options (1256 contracts) at year-end. The broker might use one price on the December monthly statement and a significantly different value on the 1099-B for calculating unrealized gains and losses. Brokers use Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) for FMV, which might be from the last trade in the marketplace. That trade might not indicate the actual FMV. Some taxpayers use Black-Scholes modeling to determine a more accurate FMV.

Tax reporting
With Section 1256 MTM and summary reporting, brokers can issue simple one-page 1099-Bs reporting “aggregate profit or loss on contracts” after taking into account realized and unrealized gains and losses.

That amount is reported on Form 6781 Part I, which breaks it down to the 60/40 split and then moves those amounts to Schedule D capital gains and losses. See a 2019 Form 1099-B lines 8 – 11 for 1256 contract reporting.

One might expect that broker-issued 1099-Bs would handle all tax treatment issues, but for some financial products, they do not. Some brokers categorize CBOE-listed options on volatility ETNs, and ETFs structured as publicly traded partnerships as securities, but there is substantial authority to treat these CBOE-listed options as “non-equity options” included in Section 1256. (Options on securities ETFs are taxed as securities.) The most complicated issue for 1099-Bs is wash sale loss adjustments on securities.

Section 1256 traders should also learn about the “mixed straddle election” and “hedging rules” in Section 1256(d) and (e), and as discussed on Form 6781. Offsetting positions between Section 1256 contracts and securities can generate tax complications under certain circumstances involving the hedging rule. The IRS is concerned about traders reporting Section 1256 MTM unrealized losses and deferring unrealized gains on offsetting securities positions, so there are rules intended to prevent this.

Election to carryback Section 1256 losses
On Form 6781, select the “net section 1256 contracts loss election” in box D. Enter, but don’t deduct the loss on the current tax return. Remove the loss from Form 6781 on line 6. Apply the Section 1256 loss on amended tax return filings against Section 1256 gains only. (Form 1045 is preferable; otherwise, use Form 1040X.) It’s a three-year carryback, and unused amounts are then carried forward. It’s the only time traders can carryback a tax loss. TCJA repealed NOL carrybacks starting in 2018.

Section 475 election
Traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) are entitled to file a timely election for Section 475 ordinary gain or loss treatment on securities and or commodities (including Section 1256 contracts). Generally, Section 475 is smart for securities traders, but not most 1256 contract traders. Ordinary losses are usually better than capital losses; however, ordinary income rates are worse than 60/40 capital gains rates.

TCJA introduced a new Section 199A “qualified business income” (QBI) deduction. Trading is a “specified service trade or business” (SSTB) subject to an income threshold, phase-in, and cap on the QBI deduction. QBI includes Section 475 ordinary income/loss, and trading business expenses. However, QBI excludes capital gains, 60/40 capital gains, portfolio income, and Section 988 and swap ordinary income. There is uncertainty about this QBI application to traders based on Section 864(b). It is better to use 60/40 capital gains rates.

Watch our Webinar recordingTrading Futures & Other Section 1256 Contracts Has Tax Advantages