Author Archives: Robert Green

Don’t Miss The Election For The SALT Cap Workaround

October 5, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Many states recently enacted “SALT cap workaround” legislation enabling pass-through entities (PTE) to deduct entity-level SALT payments as a business expense in place of non-deductible itemized deductions over the “SALT cap” of $10,000 per individual tax return. Currently, 20 states have enacted this legislation, and others are considering it.

The SALT cap workaround is not automatic in most states; the owner must file an election for PTE treatment by the deadline, which varies by state. The PTE election deadline for New York State is October 15, 2021. Connecticut’s pass-through entity (PTE) tax for the SALT cap workaround is mandatory, which is unique. In most states, the owner can make the election with a timely filed tax return, which is more convenient.

It’s also essential in most states to pay PTE estimated taxes. For a 2021 business expense deduction on the federal return, make the estimated tax payments before December 31, 2021.

See my updated blog posts on the SALT cap workaround below. As an excerpt, here are some of the updates for NYS and CA.

You can also search “SALT cap workaround” for your state. Several states published FAQs, and many local CPA firms have blog updates about it. 

This alert applies to pass-through entities (PTE), including LLCs, taxed as partnerships or S-Corps. It’s doesn’t apply to sole proprietors. For traders, the PTE must be eligible for trader tax status (TTS).

New York State

NYS Tax Department: New guidance and election application for optional pass-through entity tax (NYS Tax Dept, August 25, 2021) The New York State Tax Department has issued a technical memorandum and webpage to provide information on the new optional PTET.

New York State’s New Pass-Through Entity Tax – The CPA Journal (CPA Journal Aug. 2021)
“Election. To file and pay PTE tax, an eligible partnership or S corporation must make an irrevocable election by the first estimated payment due date, which is March 15 of the calendar year prior to the year in which the PTE tax return is required. The election is made annually and will be effective for the current taxable year. For the 2021 tax year only, an election must be made by October 15, 2021.”

NYS Tax Department: Deadline approaching to opt into pass-through entity tax (PTET) (NYS October 6, 2021)
“To opt-in: Log in to your S corporation’s or partnership’s Business Online Services account. (If the business doesn’t have an account, we recommend creating one by October 8 to avoid missing the election deadline.).”


SALT workaround elective pass-through entity tax (Spidell’s California Minute July 18, 2021)

Pass-through entity tax FAQs released by FTB (Spidell September 30, 2021)
“The FTB anticipates releasing the new pass-through entity tax voucher before December 2021. That voucher will provide instructions on how to make the elective tax payment going forward. Note that for federal purposes, the entities will only benefit from the reduction of net income on the 2021 K-1s if the payment is made before the end of the entity’s 2021 taxable year.”

Help with pass-through entity elective tax FAQs (FTB)
“A qualified entity must make the election on its original, timely filed return.” That means the 2021 PTE return due to be filed in 2022.

Other blog posts:

How to Deduct State and Local Taxes Above SALT Cap

Unlock State & Local Tax Deductions With A SALT Cap Workaround. See updates by state.

How to Deduct State and Local Taxes Above SALT Cap

August 3, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Updates: As states progress on SALT cap workaround legislation, I update that news at the bottom of my prior post: Unlock State & Local Tax Deductions With A SALT Cap Workaround.

Are you disenfranchised from state and local tax deductions because you exceed the SALT cap of $10,000 per year? 

Organizing an LLC for your business can convert non-deductible SALT into a business expense. Seventeen states have enacted SALT cap workaround laws, and several others are working towards enactment. IRS Notice 2020-75, issued on Nov. 9, 2020, gave the green light to these state laws. Most states drafted their rules to comply with this notice. 

These state laws seem to include a trading business eligible for trader tax status (TTS) but not investment companies. (The reason: TTS entities have business expense treatment, whereas investment companies have suspended investment expenses.)

The states that have enacted SALT cap workaround laws with the effective date:

There is pending legislation in Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, North Carolina, Oregon, and Pennsylvania. (Most have passed, see updates).

These SALT cap workaround laws don’t significantly impact state revenues and incentivize entrepreneurs to remain in their state. Even if Congress repeals or revises the SALT limitation, the SALT cap workaround is the better option since you can deduct business expenses from gross income versus itemized deductions subject to an AMT limitation.

California’s new law automatically repeals its SALT cap workaround if Congress repeals the SALT cap limitation. For details on California and several other state laws, see ongoing updates to my June 22, 2021 blog post, Unlock State & Local Tax Deductions With A SALT Cap Workaround. Also, the podcast SALT workaround elective pass-through entity tax (Spidell’s California Minute, July 18, 2021) is an excellent listen for California residents.

TTS traders have other compelling reasons to consider an LLC partnership or S-Corp. 

  • A new LLC taxed as a partnership or S-Corp (pass-through entity PTE) can elect Section 475 MTM within 75 days of inception. That comes in handy since the individual sole proprietor deadline for a 475 election has passed. Section 475 provides tax-loss insurance through its exemption from wash sales and the capital loss limitation. Also, it offers a chance to get a 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction on TTS/475 net income. 
  • An LLC taxed as an S-Corp unlocks health insurance and retirement plan deductions for TTS traders.

Now more than ever before may be the time to form your TTS entity, but you need to act quickly. Trading in an entity brokerage account for at least all Q4 2021 will help you qualify for TTS. The entity can only pay SALT business expenses on the entity income.

Many states require an election, some by partner, and SALT PTE tax payments have due dates. Dig into the details of your state, and we can help. Don’t miss the boat!

Darren Neuschwander, CPA, contributed to this blog post.

How Some Traders Double-Up On Retirement Plan Contributions

June 23, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Profitable traders are keen on maximizing retirement plan contributions in trading activities and also in their full-time jobs. Traders are pros at investing, and they understand the power of tax-free compounding while saving for retirement. However, wages are required to make contributions to a retirement plan.  Active traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) can use an S-Corp structure to pay themselves the necessary wages.

Those who have a job in addition to trading can double their retirement savings by maximizing their employer 401(k) and contributing another $58,000 to an unaffiliated TTS S-Corp Solo 401(k) or profit-sharing plan.

The TTS S-Corp pays officer compensation, which engineers the earned income required for employee benefit tax deductions, including health insurance premiums and retirement plan contributions. Conversely, trading gains from capital gains or Section 475 ordinary income are considered unearned income, for which the IRS does not permit retirement plan contributions.

An individual TTS trader deducts business expenses on Schedule C. However, a sole proprietor TTS trader cannot arrange AGI deductions for health insurance premiums and retirement plan contributions because underlying trading gains are not self-employment income (SEI) or earned income. A sole proprietor of any kind cannot pay himself payroll (salaries). It’s also tricky for a TTS partnership to create SEI since partnership compensation and other expenses reduce it. Whereas S-Corp payments do not reduce SEI, making the S-Corp the structure of choice for TTS traders for arranging employee benefits.

In the examples below, full-time Trader A contributes the $64,500 cap to a Solo 401(k) retirement plan for 2021. Part-time Trader B doubles up on retirement benefits, maximizing an unaffiliated employer 401(k) plan for $19,500 and contributing up to the $58,000 cap in her TTS S-Corp profit-sharing plan. Unfortunately, part-time Trader C is out of luck; his consulting company is affiliated with his TTS S-Corp, so he must include consulting company employees in his retirement plan.

Fulltime Trader A
This person owns a single-member LLC (SMLLC) taxed as an S-Corp, eligible for TTS business expense deductions.

In December 2021, based on sufficient annual profits, a TTS S-Corp can pay maximum-required officer compensation of $154,000 to make the Solo 401(k) retirement plan contribution cap of $58,000 ($64,500 for age 50 or older; 2021 limits). Trader A’s Solo 401(k) plan comprises a $19,500 elective deferral, $6,500 catch-up elective deferral for age 50 or older, and a $38,500 profit-sharing contribution for an overall plan limit of $64,500.

Trader A’s W-2 wage statement deducts the Solo 401(k) elective deferral amount of $26,000 from taxable income (box 1), and the S-Corp deducts the profit-sharing contribution of $38,500 on Form 1120-S. The profit-sharing contribution is 100% deductible, but it represents 25% of wages, translating to $38,500 of officer wages (25% of $154,000). The elective deferral of $26,000 is 100%  deductible, and it looks to gross income. If the 401(k) plan only provided for an elective deferral (no profit-sharing contribution), then Trader A would only need wages (net of required deductions) of $26,000 before contribution on a pre-tax basis to the 401(k) (a higher amount may be necessary for a Roth IRA).

Alternatively, if Trader A did not make an elective deferral, the TTS S-Corp could contribute $58,000 to the Solo 401(k) plan on officer wages of $232,000 ($58,000 is 25% of $232,000).

Higher wages trigger an additional Medicare tax of 2.90% (plus a 0.9% Obamacare Medicare surtax over the ACA income threshold). The Medicare tax of 3.8% on earned income (wages) often replaces the 3.8% Obamacare net investment tax for upper-income traders.

If Trader A is married and the spouse provides employment services to the S-Corp, the spouse can also participate in the S-Corp retirement plan. The same goes for working-age children rendering services negotiated at arm’s length.

There’s also an option for a Roth 401(k) (after-tax) plan for the elective deferral portion only. Suppose you are willing to forgo the upfront tax deduction. In that case, you’ll enjoy permanent tax-free status on contributions and growth within the plan — subject to satisfying certain IRS conditions —  and minimum distributions at age 72 are not required.

Of course, W-2 wages are subject to payroll taxes. For 2021, on the Social Security wage base amount of $142,800, 6.2% of Social Security taxes are paid and deducted by the employer, and 6.2% are withheld from the employee’s paycheck. Thus, in most cases, the taxpayer saves more in income taxes than they owe in payroll taxes while at the same time accumulating Social Security benefits for retirement.

Part-time Trader B working for Big Tech
This trader has a full-time job with a Big Tech company earning a W-2 salary of $300,000 per year. Trader B seeks to maximize participation in her employer’s 401(k) retirement plan, with an elective deferral of $19,500 (under age 50), plus an employer matching contribution of 6%, which does not count towards the elective deferral limit.

Trader B also operates a TTS S-Corp and makes $400,000 in capital gains for 2021. In addition to her employer’s 401(k), Trader B wants to utilize a Solo 401(k) retirement plan to maximize her savings.

The critical issue is whether Trader B’s TTS S-Corp is affiliated with her employer. Assuming it is unaffiliated, Trader B can maximize multiple employer retirement plans, with an essential restriction: An individual can only defer the limit ($19,500 plus $6,500 catch-up, if over 50) regardless of the number of plans. So, Trader B skips the elective deferral in her Solo 401(k) and makes a $58,000 (2021 limit) profit-sharing contribution to her Solo 401(k) plan or contributes to a SEP IRA. Trader B would need $232,000 in wages to maximize the profit-sharing contribution of $58,000 ($232,000 divided by a 25% rate for an S-Corp). Trader B’s TTS S-Corp shows a net profit after deducting officer compensation and the retirement plan contribution. (See Retirement Topics – 401(k) and Profit-Sharing Plan Contribution Limits.)

When a taxpayer receives wages from more than one employer, there might be duplicate Social Security taxes for the employer share if over the Social Security wage base amount. The individual tax return identifies excess employee Social Security taxes and reclassifies them as a federal tax credit, avoiding redundancy on the employee share.

Part-time Trader C with an Affiliated Company
This trader owns 100% of a consulting business S-Corp with 10 full-time employees. The consulting S-Corp does not offer a retirement plan to its employees. Trader C wonders if the TTS S-Corp can establish a Solo 401(k) plan and deny participation by consulting business employees. The answer is no because these two employers are affiliated.

The controlled group non-discrimination rules prevent an owner from discriminating against his employees by excluding them from retirement benefits. It is wise to consult an employee benefits attorney about vesting and other means to work within the constraints of the non-discrimination, controlled group, and affiliated service group rules. 

Q&A with Employee-benefits Attorneys    

I asked the following questions to employee-benefits attorneys Rick Matta, David Levine, and Joanne Jacobson of Groom Law Group.

  1. Do you agree with the retirement plan strategy for full-time Trader A?

    Yes, with the caveat that a TTS trader must have earned income (W-2 wages) for this retirement plan strategy. 

  2. Can Trader B maximize her Big Tech employer’s 401(k) plan while contributing the maximum allowed $58,000 to a TTS S-Corp profit-sharing plan for 2021?

    Yes, as long as the two employers are unaffiliated. Multiple employers can have various retirement plans, but a taxpayer is limited to one 401(k) elective deferral limit.

  3. If Trader B only contributes $10,000 to his Big Tech employer’s 401(k), can he contribute the remaining $9,500 to a TTS S-Corp Solo 401(k)? If yes, is there a formal integration required?

    Yes, the $19,500 / $26,000 limit is based on the individual across all plans in which he or she participates. Therefore, coordination of these limits across plans is required.

  4. Do you agree that Trader C’s consulting S-Corp is affiliated with his TTS S-Corp? How does affiliation restrict Trader C?

    From the facts presented, it appears that they are affiliated, and the IRS non-discrimination rules could limit the amounts Trade C could save for retirement.  However, it is essential to keep in mind that there are many ways that “affiliation” can occur. For example, it can be due to common ownership (commonly called “controlled group”), sharing of services (commonly called “affiliated service group”), or even common governance or control (especially for non-profits). Therefore, a careful review of each structure is vital to avoid potentially costly failures.

  5. Do you recommend that Traders A, B, and C also consider a nondeductible IRA if they are not eligible for deductible IRA contributions?

    Nondeductible IRAs are always on our list to consider when speaking with TTS traders with earned income. 

  6. Do you support converting IRAs and 401(k) rollovers to Roth IRAs?

    These types of IRAs – called “back door Roth IRAs” by some in the industry – are popular planning tools.  While each individual’s tax planning varies, they are often seen as advantageous.  We also note that there are in-plan Roth conversion opportunities in 401(k) plans that can have other benefits that can be worth considering.

  7. Are defined benefit plans appropriate for upper-income TTS traders? Defined benefit plans – when carefully designed – can provide significant tax-advantaged savings vehicles and are almost always worth consideration.

Many of our TTS trader clients operate in an S-Corp, and they select a Solo 401(k) retirement plan and execute the strategy through year-end payroll. Adding a traditional IRA, Roth IRA, or nondeductible IRA contribution by April 15 tax time is generally a good idea, too.

Consider consulting with an employee benefits attorney to discuss multiple employer retirement plans, affiliate service group rules, defined benefit plans, and back door Roth strategies.

Contributions by Adam Manning, CPA, and Groom Law attorneys Rick Matta, David Levine, and Joanne Jacobson.

Unlock State & Local Tax Deductions With A SALT Cap Workaround

June 22, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Updates: As states progress on SALT cap workaround legislation, I will update that news at the bottom of this post. Also, see my August 3, 2021 blog post, How to Deduct State and Local Taxes Above SALT Cap.

Since 2018, taxpayers living in high-tax states have been unable to take an itemized deduction of state and local taxes over a limitation (known as the “SALT” cap) of $10,000 per year. This limitation came from the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) and is effective for tax years 2018 through 2025. But the good news is that some states have a workaround, which I cover in this post.

On Nov. 9, 2020, Treasury and the IRS issued Notice 2020-75, which says they “intend to issue proposed regulations to clarify that State and local income taxes imposed on and paid by a partnership or an S corporation on its income are allowed as a deduction by the partnership or S corporation in computing its non-separately stated taxable income or loss for the taxable year of payment.”

The Workaround
To date, state laws for SALT cap workarounds vary, but the general idea is that a pass-through entity (PTE) assesses a tax at the state’s rate on individuals. The state then grants the respective owners of the PTE a tax credit on their state personal income tax return. The SALT cap only applies to individual taxes, not PTE entity-level taxes. Other states subject the PTE to an entity-level tax and then exclude that respective PTE income from the owner’s state tax return.

Check the latest news in your state to see if your state has enacted a SALT cap workaround when the tax law is effective (i.e., 2021 or 2022) and how it works. For example, Connecticut made the PTE tax mandatory for the SALT cap workaround strategy. Most of the other states make it elective, giving the taxpayer more choices; however, don’t miss the election deadline. Consult your tax advisor to see how this strategy might save you money and whether you should consider forming a pass-through entity soon in 2021.

Traders seem to qualify for the SALT cap workaround
Many traders eligible for trader tax status (TTS) already use a PTE like a spousal-member LLC/partnership or single-member LLC/S-Corp. TTS traders need an S-Corp to pay officer compensation to unlock health insurance and retirement plan deductions, which otherwise are not allowed on trading gains that are unearned income.

A TTS trader in securities, commodities, and other financial products, has business expense treatment. A TTS trader actively buys and sells capital assets with capital gains and losses, or Section 475 ordinary gains and losses, if elected on a timely basis.

Here’s an example: In 2021, Joe Trader pays $35,000 of state income taxes on the S-Corp level using a SALT cap workaround. His S-Corp net income is $500,000, subject to a state tax rate of 7%. Joe reaches his SALT cap of $10,000 with real estate taxes of $11,000, so he loses a $1,000 deduction. Joe deducts $35,000 of the S-Corp state taxes from his gross income saving $12,950 in federal taxes ($35,000 state tax deduction x 37% top marginal federal tax rate). Without a SALT cap workaround, Joe would have $36,000 of non-deductible SALT.

Next steps
Many accountants had taken a wait-and-see approach on SALT cap workaround strategies since IRS approval was uncertain before the November 2020 IRS notice mentioned above. In addition, the IRS and Treasury previously rejected recharacterizing SALT payments as charitable contributions, which a few states attempted.

This PTE tax approach is not foreign; some southeastern states use PTE composite returns to assess tax on non-resident owners. 

Some tax pundits expected the Biden administration to repeal the SALT cap. However, President Biden’s FY 2022 budget and recent infrastructure bills do not include the reversal of the SALT cap. Congressional Republicans are resistant to undermine TCJA. Some Congressional Democrats stated they might not support Biden’s infrastructure bills unless they fix the SALT cap. Stay tuned!

The PTE tax might be a better solution than pre-TCJA law when SALT was an itemized deduction and a preference for alternative minimum tax (AMT).

Updated news by state below

IRS Signals Approval of Entity-Level SALT Cap Workaround, But States Should Still Think Twice (Tax Foundation Nov. 11, 2020)
“Treasury and IRS signaled their intention to bless one type of state workaround for the $10,000 State and Local Tax (SALT) deduction cap: entity-level taxes that allow owners of pass-through businesses to pay an additional state tax at the business level, with an offsetting credit against their individual income tax liability. Since the SALT deduction cap does not apply to business taxes, this functionally allows these owners to avoid the cap, since the entity-level tax substitutes for their income tax payment, which would have been subject to a capped deduction.”

“Connecticut, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin have all adopted entity-level taxes which offer credits against the owners’ personal tax liability. In Connecticut, the entity-level tax is mandatory. In the other six states, it is elective; business owners can choose to pay it and claim the credit, or may decline if it is not in their best interest to go that route.”

New Jersey enacts SALT deduction cap workaround (Grant Thorton Feb. 14, 2020)

California Lawmakers, Governor Float SALT Cap Workaround Plans (Bloomberg Tax Jan. 14, 2021)
“A new California Senate bill (SB 104) would give pass-throughs—partnerships, limited liability companies, and S corporations—the option to pay an entity-level income tax that would be fully deductible. The bill doesn’t specify a tax rate yet. Individuals who are members of those businesses would exclude the amount the entity pays from their gross income.” (Governor) Newsom’s proposal is narrower, applying only to S corporations. It would give those businesses the option to pay a 13.3% income tax rather than the 1.5% that California currently imposes on S corporations. Shareholders would get a tax credit equal to 13.3% of their passed-through income. Under current California law, an S corporation’s income is also taxable at the shareholder level.”
Calif. Gov. Updates Budget With Tax Rebates, SALT Workaround (Law360 May 14, 2021)
California budget deal reached: More stimulus payments and tax relief (Spidell News June 28, 2021)
“The Governor and legislative leaders announced that they have reached a budget deal. Major tax-related items contained in the deal include an elective passthrough entity tax, which provides a work-around to the $10,000 SALT deduction limitation for owners of passthrough entities…These provisions are contained in draft legislation that has not yet been enacted, although it is anticipated that these bills will be passed within the next week or two.”
SALT Cap Workaround, Tax Credit Boosts Go To California Governor (Bloomberg Tax July 1, 2021)
“A California workaround to the $10,000 federal cap on state and local tax deductions, expanded tax credits, and new grants for businesses are included in bills lawmakers sent Thursday to Gov. Gavin Newsom (D). Tax policy changes in a bill lawmakers passed Thursday (A.B. 150) include a workaround for the $10,000 cap on state and local tax deductions for S corporations and their shareholders. The corporations could pay 9.3% income tax rather than the 1.5% rate California currently imposes. Shareholders would get a tax credit equal to 9.3% of their passed-through income. The workaround would be in effect for taxable years 2021 through 2025 and taxpayers would have to use the option on original, timely filed tax returns.
Calif. Joins States With SALT Cap Workaround (Law360 July 16, 2021)
“Gov. Gavin Newsom, a Democrat, signed A.B. 150… he reiterated his position that the cap on the SALT deduction should be lifted but said California would provide “a partial fix” for S corporations and other pass-throughs. California’s SALT workaround for pass-through entities will be an elective tax that the entity pays on behalf of partners. The partners can then receive a credit. The tax rate will be 9.3% and will fall on the distributive shares of income of the partners. Individual partners can choose not to consent, but the entity can still elect to pay the tax. Those partners who do consent will get a nonrefundable credit that equals the amount of tax paid by the entity on the partners’ behalf. The pass-through workaround will begin for tax year 2021 and sunset after tax year 2025, according to the analysis.”
SALT workaround elective passthrough entity tax (Spidell’s California Minute July 18, 2021)
Passthrough entity tax FAQs released by FTB (Spidell Sept. 30, 2021)
“The FTB anticipates releasing the new passthrough entity tax voucher before December 2021. That voucher will provide instructions on how to make the elective tax payment going forward. Note that for federal purposes, the entities will only benefit from the reduction of net income on the 2021 K-1s if the payment is made before the end of the entity’s 2021 taxable year.”
Help with pass-through entity elective tax FAQs (FTB)
“A qualified entity must make the election on its original, timely filed return.”

New York Includes SALT Cap Workaround in Budget Deal (Bloomberg April 6, 2021)
“The deal between New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo (D) and Democratic legislative leaders, announced Tuesday, would allow pass-through businesses to pay taxes at the entity level. The entity-level tax would be offset by a corresponding individual income tax credit.”
New York Governor Signs Bill That Could Provide Pass-Through Entities a SALT Deduction Cap Workaround (NYSSCPA April 10, 2021)
New York State Budget Provides A Work Around To The Federal SALT Cap For Certain Business Entities (Forbes May 27, 2021)
SALT Cap Workaround Rules Due Soon From New York Tax Department (Bloomberg Tax Aug. 19, 2021)
“New York business owners hankering to seize on a fresh tax break may get guidance from the state’s tax department as early as next week, according to a source familiar with the matter.”
NYS Tax Department: New guidance and election application for optional pass-through entity tax (NYS Tax Dept, Aug. 25, 2021) The New York State Tax Department has issued a technical memorandum and webpage to provide information on the new optional PTET.
New York State’s New Pass-Through Entity Tax – The CPA Journal (CPA Journal Aug. 2021)
“Election. To file and pay PTE tax, an eligible partnership or S corporation must make an irrevocable election by the first estimated payment due date, which is March 15 of the calendar year prior to the year in which the PTE tax return is required. The election is made annually and will be effective for the current taxable year. For the 2021 tax year only, an election must be made by October 15, 2021.
New York Pass Through Entity Tax Update & How to Actually Make the Election ( (Sept. 21, 2021)
New York’s Passthrough Entity Tax (CliftonLarsonAllen LLP Sept. 30, 2021). 
“Only an authorized person, as defined, may make this election on behalf of an eligible S corporation or partnership. The PTET election application can be filed electronically by creating a business online services account with the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance.

Alabama Lawmakers Advance Changes to SALT Cap Workaround (Tax Notes April 15, 2021)
Ala. Floats Rule For SALT Cap Workaround (Law360 Sept. 1, 2021)
“The rule, published in Tuesday’s state register, would provide that required annual payments are the lesser of 100% of the tax shown for the taxable year or 100% of the tax shown for the preceding year. The proposed rule also provides that while an entity is transitioning to being taxed at the entity level, required estimated quarterly payments will be 25% of the required annual payment.”

La. Senate Approves SALT Cap Workaround For Pass-Throughs (Law360 May 23, 2021)

SALT Workarounds Spread to More States as Democrats Seek Repeal (Bloomberg Tax April 27, 2021)
“Seven states, including California and Illinois, are poised to join nearly a dozen others like New York and New Jersey that have skirted around the federal cap on state and local tax deductions as the prospect of a federal fix remains elusive. New York and Idaho both recently passed legislation to work around the controversial 2017 tax law feature known as the SALT cap. Georgia and Arizona are awaiting their governors’ approvals of similar SALT cap workarounds, and lawmakers in California, Massachusetts, Illinois, North Carolina, and South Carolina are debating bills of the same nature.” (See the state map of states included in the workaround.)

Massachusetts Lawmakers Push SALT Cap Workaround in Budget (Bloomberg Tax May 11, 2021)
Mass. Senate OKs Budget With Child Credit, SALT Workaround (Law360 June 2, 2021)
“The pass-through provision is similar to other entity-level taxes that states have either enacted or are considering as a workaround to the $10,000 state and local tax deduction cap. The pass-through entity-level tax provisions would take effect for taxable years beginning on and after Jan. 1, 2021.”
Mass. Legislators Pass Budget With SALT Workaround, Credits (Law360 July 9, 2021)
“The Massachusetts Legislature unanimously passed a fiscal year 2022 budget Friday that would establish an entity-level tax for pass-through businesses…would allow an entity-level tax on pass-throughs and provide a credit against a member’s share of that tax.”
Mass. Gov.’s Budget Creates Tax Credits, Vetoes Deduction Delay (Law360 July 19, 2021)
“Republican Gov. Charlie Baker on Friday signed the budget bill while returning to the Legislature a provision that would allow an entity-level tax on pass-throughs and provide a credit against a member’s share of that tax, asking it to increase the credit portion. Baker returned the pass-through provision to the state Legislature with proposed amendments that would increase a member’s credit from 90% of their share in the entity’s tax to 100% of their tax share, saying that taxpayers should collect the full benefit as struggling businesses emerge from the pandemic. The pass-through entity-level tax provisions will take effect for taxable years beginning on and after Jan. 1, 2021.”
Massachusetts Lawmakers Override Governor on SALT Cap Fix (1) (Bloomberg Tax July 29, 2021)
“Both the governor and lawmakers agreed to a SALT cap fix that would allow individuals to get around the $10,000 deduction limit by having pass-through entities they are members of, like S corporations, pay the 5% state excise tax, instead of having income flow to individual members for taxation. The lawmakers’ measure, however, would allow the individual members a credit equal to the share of state taxes owed, multiplied by 0.9. This would bring in $90 million annually to the state, they estimate. Baker had wanted a 100% credit for individual members.” 
Capital gains and Section 475 ordinary income is taxed at the 12% rate. 

SC Offers SALT Cap Workaround Through Entity-Level Tax (Law360 May 19, 2021)
“Republican Gov. Henry McMaster signed S.B. 627 on Monday, allowing partnerships and S corporations to make an annual election to pay a 3% tax at the entity level while offering a corresponding income exclusion for owners and partners. The bill will take effect starting in tax year 2021.”

Illinois Assembly Approves SALT Workarounds for Partnerships (Bloomberg Tax May 31, 2021)
Illinois Enacts SALT Cap Workaround for Pass-Through Businesses  (Bloomberg Tax Aug. 27, 2021)
Gov. “Pritzker signed S.B. 2531, which allows partnerships and S corporations to pay their income tax at the entity-level rate of 4.95% and then claim a credit on their state return.” The annual election is irrevocable and the tax benefit is available for tax years ending on or after Dec. 31, 2021, and before Jan. 1, 2026.
Ill. Offers Estimated Payment Penalty Relief For Entity-Level Tax (Law30 Sept. 9, 2021)
“Illinois will waive penalties for late estimated payments for the state’s new entity-level tax that acts as a workaround to the federal cap on state and local tax deductions, the state Department of Revenue announced Thursday.”

SALT Workaround for Pass-Throughs Advances to Michigan Governor (Bloomberg Tax June 23, 2021)
“The SALT cap workaround bill (H.B. 4288) could provide roughly $190 million in federal tax relief for Michigan businesses without costing the state a dime, according to a legislative fiscal statement. The measure would let pass-through businesses pay state and local taxes at the entity level starting in tax year 2021, allowing the full deduction of these taxes on federal returns instead of limiting the deduction amount the entity owners can currently claim on their flow-through income.”
Mich. Gov. Vetoes SALT Deduction Cap Workaround Bill (Law360, July 14, 2021).
Michigan’s governor vetoed a bill seeking to create an entity-level tax for pass-through businesses to sidestep the federal cap on state and local tax deductions, saying the bill’s $5 million cost to implement should be part of broader budget negotiations.
Mich. Lawmakers OK Budget Funding SALT Cap Workaround (Law360 Sept. 23, 2021)
“Michigan lawmakers approved a nearly $70 billion budget that includes funding necessary to implement a state and local tax deduction cap workaround for pass-throughs that the governor previously vetoed due to reservations about the program’s cost.”
Michigan Budget Funds SALT Cap Workaround (Law360 Sept. 29, 2021)
“Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer signed the state’s budget Wednesday, including a provision with funding necessary to implement a state and local tax deduction cap workaround for pass-throughs that she previously vetoed due to reservations about the program’s cost.”
Mich. House Fast-Tracks Refiled SALT Cap Workaround Bill (Law360 Oct. 7, 2021)
“Michigan lawmakers moved quickly Thursday to allow a vote on a refiled entity-level tax bill to sidestep the $10,000 federal cap on state and local tax deductions, following the governor’s pledge to support the program after its funding was secured.”
Michigan House Passes Refiled SALT Cap Workaround Bill (Law360 Oct. 14, 2021).
“Michigan’s House of Representatives passed legislation Thursday that would offer an entity-level tax permitting pass-through businesses to sidestep the $10,000 federal cap on state and local tax deductions — a program for which the state’s budget specifically earmarked funding.”


Democrats consider ‘SALT’ relief for state and local tax deductions (NBC News June 24, 2021)

Georgia Enacts Salt Cap Workaround For Tax Years Starting In 2022 (Windham Brannon)
House Bill 149, which was signed into law, creates a SALT cap workaround for Georgia partnerships and subchapter S corporations.”

Maryland’s SALT Workaround: Impacts and Planning Opportunities (March 12, 2021)

Rhode Island Budgets For Salt Workaround (Aug. 2019)

Wisconsin enacts SALT deduction workaround with pass-through tax (Dec. 17, 2018)

IRS Provides Clarity Regarding Oklahoma’s Salt Cap Workaround (March 3, 2021)

North Carolina Republicans Introduce SALT Cap Workaround (Tax Notes April 8, 2021)
NC House OKs Budget With Tax Cuts, SALT Cap Workaround (Law 360 Aug. 13, 2021)
“Democratic Gov. Roy Cooper opposes H.B. 334.”

Ore. Senate OKs Trimming Biz Tax Break, SALT Workaround (Law360, June 17, 2021)
“Under S.B. 727, the state would create an elective entity-level tax on qualifying pass-through entities. The tax rate would be 9% for the first $250,000 of income and 9.9% for income above $250,000. If an entity elects to pay the tax, the owners would be allowed an offsetting tax credit to claim on their personal income tax returns.”

Colo. Lawmakers OK Entity-Level Taxation To Skirt SALT Cap (Law360, June 9, 2021)
“Under the bill, the state would allow pass-through entities to elect to pay an entity-level tax for income tax years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2022. The entity-level tax rate would be 4.55%, the same as the state’s flat income tax rate.”
Colo. Limits Tax Breaks, OKs SALT Workaround In Tax Overhaul (Law360, June 24, 2021)
Gov. signed “H.B. 1327 provides for the entity-level tax to circumvent the $10,000 SALT cap.”

Pa. Bill Seeks Entity-Level Tax To Bypass SALT Deduction Cap (Law360 June 29, 2021)
“H.B. 1709, introduced Monday by Rep. Martina A. White, R-Philadelphia, would allow partnerships and S corporations to elect to be taxed at the entity level while providing an offsetting credit to owners and shareholders.”

Arizona House Panel OKs Entity-Level Tax To Skirt SALT Cap (Law360 Feb. 18, 2021)
Ariz. Adopts High-Earner Tax Bypass, SALT Cap Workaround  (Law360 July 12, 2021)
“Arizona will create an alternative business income tax and an entity-level tax, bypassing both a state income tax surcharge on high earners and the federal cap on state and local tax deductions under two bills signed by the governor. H.B. 2838 will allow partnerships and S corporations to elect to pay a 4.5% tax at the entity level and offer a credit to the entity’s partners, members or shareholders for their pro rata share of the tax, according to a bill analysis. The entity-level tax election will be available only if all of an entity’s members, partners or shareholders are Arizona residents. The bill will take effect on Jan. 1, 2022, and the credit is allowed to be carried forward for up to five consecutive years.”

A Closer Look at Minnesota’s Proposed SALT Cap Workaround (Minnesota Center for Fiscal Excellence)
Minn. To Offer SALT Cap Workaround, PPP Loan Tax Relief (Law360 July 1, 2021)
“Democratic Gov. Tim Walz signed into law H.B. 9. The law creates an entity-level tax for pass-through entities with a refundable credit for entity members, allowing them to bypass the $10,000 state and local tax cap…starting tax year 2021”

Ark. Bill Floats SALT Cap Workaround With Pass-Through Tax (Law360 Jan. 20, 2021)

Some states now offer certain business owners a workaround for cap on state and local tax deduction (CNBC July 22, 2021)

Sens. Endorse Easing SALT Cap, Killing ARPA Tax Cut Limits (Law360 Aug. 11, 2021)
“Under the budget resolution Democrats advanced early Wednesday, a priority for the Senate Finance Committee would be “SALT cap relief.” No definition of relief or other detail is provided… Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, offered an amendment to the budget resolution to leave the SALT cap untouched, calling the SALT deduction a provision “that mainly benefits the wealthy.” However, the amendment failed 48-51.”

California Drivers And Ohio Musicians: SALT In Review (Law360 Sept. 3, 2021)
“The good folks at the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy released a report on potential changes to the SALT deduction limits. ITEP looked at several scenarios:”

NJ Dem Reps Say No SALT Cap Repeal, No Reconciliation (Law360 Sept. 20, 2021)
“A group of New Jersey congressional Democrats said Monday that they will vote against a proposed $3.5 trillion reconciliation bill unless the federal deduction for state and local taxes is fully restored.”

Entity-Level Taxes Grow, But Future Uncertain, Tax Atty Says (Law360 Sept. 23, 2021)
“Although 20 states have adopted pass-through taxes at the entity level as a workaround to the $10,000 cap on the federal deduction for state and local taxes paid, these regimes face a highly uncertain future, a tax professional said Thursday. This month, Democrats on the House Ways and Means Committee released a preliminary $2.9 trillion package of tax increases that left out a repeal of the SALT cap. But House Ways and Means Chairman Richard E. Neal, D-Mass, and Ways and Means members Rep. Bill Pascrell, D-N.J. and Rep. Tom Suozzi, D-N.Y., said afterward that although the measure was left out, they were committed to enacting a law “that will include meaningful SALT relief.”

2nd Circ. Rejects States’ Challenge To Fed. SALT Cap (Law360 Oct. 5, 2021)
“The federal $10,000 deduction cap on state and local taxes is constitutional, the Second Circuit said Tuesday, finding a challenge to the limitation by Maryland, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut…”

SALT-Cap Relief Faces Rollback as Democrats Eye Less Spending (Bloomberg Tax Oct. 4, 2021)
“Democrats risk settling for a less generous expansion of the state and local tax deduction than previously hoped after President Joe Biden conceded that lawmakers will have to scale back his economic agenda to get it enacted.”

Ohio Bill Seeks Entity-Level Tax To Bypass SALT Cap (Law360 Oct. 6, 2021)
“Under the (proposed) bill, entities that elect to be taxed at the entity level would have to make separate, irrevocable elections each tax year, starting in the entity’s tax year that begins in 2022. The tax rate would be 5% for 2022 and would then be the rate on taxable business income, currently 3%, for later years.”

Darren L. Neuschwander, CPA, contributed to this blog post. 














The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 Impacts Traders

June 21, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA

On March 11, 2021, Congress and President Biden enacted “The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021” (ARP). In this post, I focus on the provisions that could impact traders, including recovery rebates for individuals, EBL extension, child tax credit, loan forgiveness, and more. The quotations included under each topic are from the “American Rescue Plan Act Roadmap” published by Bloomberg Tax & Accounting.

Many of the ARP tax benefits are subject to income thresholds. Traders have widely fluctuating income and losses from year to year, and they might qualify for some of these tax benefits. ARP includes business and health care benefits, but most don’t apply to solo TTS traders.

2021 Recovery Rebates to Individuals

“Provides a $1,400 refundable tax credit to individuals ($2,800 for joint filers) with up to $75,000 in adjusted gross income (or $112,500 for heads of household and $150,000 for married couples filing jointly). Provides $1,400 for dependents (both child and non-child). The credit will be phased out entirely for those with incomes above $80,000 (or $120,000 for heads of household and $160,000 for married couples filing jointly). The credit is reduced between $75,000 and $80,000 (or $112,500 and $120,000 for heads of household and $150,000 and $160,000 for married couples filing jointly).”

Extension of Limitation on Excess Business Losses (EBL)

A trader eligible for trader tax status (TTS) using a Section 475 election for ordinary loss treatment might exceed the EBL threshold. The excess is a net operating loss (NOL) carry forward. The original 2018 EBL threshold was $500,000/$250,000 married/other taxpayers, and it’s adjusted for inflation.

“Extends for an additional year (through 2026) the denial of a current-year deduction for business losses of a noncorporate taxpayer to the extent they exceed business income plus a threshold amount.”

Suspension of Income Tax on Portion of Unemployment Compensation

Many traders collected unemployment compensation in 2020, as they lost their jobs during the Covid pandemic. Some commenced a TTS trading activity after the Covid crash in March 2020; it’s important to note trading gains do not conflict with unemployment insurance benefits. A TTS S-Corp with officer compensation, however, does conflict with unemployment benefits.

“For 2020, excludes from gross income up to $10,200 of unemployment compensation received for individuals with adjusted gross income of less than $150,000.”

Child Tax Credit

“Increases the child tax credit amount for 2021 only, to $3,600 for children under 6, and to $3,000 for children ages 6 to 17; expands definition of ‘qualifying child’ to include 17-year-olds.”

Credits for Paid Sick and Family Leave for Certain Self-Employed Individuals

“Extends the refundable paid sick time and paid family leave credits established by the Families First Coronavirus Response Act through September 30, 2021. For purposes of the family leave credit, between April 1, 2021, and September 30, 2021, eligible wages are increased to $12,000 from $10,000. Extends eligibility to additional self-employed workers.”

Student Loan Forgiveness

“For eligible student loans discharged in 2021-2025, the discharged amounts are excluded from income. The exclusion from income does not apply to the discharge of a loan made by certain lenders if the discharge is on account of services performed for the lender.”


FACT SHEET: The American Rescue Plan Will Deliver Immediate Economic Relief to Families (U.S. Department of the Treasury, March 18, 2021)

The American Rescue Plan (Whitehouse.Gov). Consumer-friendly approach. 

Tax provisions in the American Rescue Plan Act (Journal of Accountancy, Feb. 27, 2021)


The IRS postponed the 2020 individual tax deadline to May 17

April 6, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA

The IRS postponed the 2020 individual tax filing and payment deadline to May 17, 2021, including the 2021 Section 475 election. For Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana residents, the deadlines are June 15, 2021. 

April 13, 2021: The IRS continues to assert that 2021 first quarter estimated tax payments are due April 15, even though they postponed the 2020 individual tax filing and payment deadline to May 17, 2021. See IRS notice Electing To Apply a 2020 Return Overpayment From a May 17 Payment with Extension Request to 2021 Estimated Taxes

March 29, 2021: The good news is the individual Section 475 election is due May 17, 2021, with the 2020 tax return or extension. The IRS issued formal guidance Notice 2021-21, “Relief For Form 1040 Filers Affected By Ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic.” The IRS notice states, “Finally, elections that are made or required to be made on a timely filed Form 1040 series (or attachment to such form) will be timely made if filed on such form or attachment, as appropriate, on or before May 17, 2021.” The IRS notice also postponed the 2020 IRA and HSA contribution tax deadline to May 17, 2021.

March 17, 2021: Tax Day for individuals extended to May 17: Treasury, IRS extend filing and payment deadline. “The Treasury Department and Internal Revenue Service announced today that the federal income tax filing due date for individuals for the 2020 tax year will be automatically extended from April 15, 2021, to May 17, 2021. The IRS will be providing formal guidance in the coming days. Individual taxpayers can also postpone federal income tax payments for the 2020 tax year due on April 15, 2021, to May 17, 2021, without penalties and interest, regardless of the amount owed. This relief does not apply to (2021) estimated tax payments that are due on April 15, 2021. The IRS urges taxpayers to check with their state tax agencies for those details.” (IRS Issue Number: IR-2021-59). Intuit: State Tax Deadline Updates. The postponement does not apply to C-Corps, trusts, and estates.

Feb. 22, 2021: For residents of Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana, the IRS postponed the April 15, 2021 tax filing and payment deadline until June 15, 2021, after a federal disaster declaration in February 2021 due to winter storms. It also extended the 2021 Q1 estimated income tax payment deadline from April 15 to June 15, 2021. The delay includes various 2020 business returns due on March 15, including partnerships and S-Corps. The postponement also applies to the 2021 Section 475 election for individuals and pass-through entities in these three states.

Emergency $900 Billion Pandemic Relief

January 10, 2021 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA

On Dec. 21, 2020, Congress passed an emergency $900 billion pandemic relief bill, extending CARES to people in need. On Dec. 27, 2020, the President signed the legislation, part of a government funding package. The new Covid-19 legislation includes:

Direct payments: The maximum amount is $600 for individuals and $1,200 for married couples filing jointly, plus an additional $600 per qualifying child. Subject to phase out for individuals making more than $75,000 modified adjusted gross income and married couples over $150,000. It’s a 2020 advanced recovery rebate with eligibility based on 2019 tax returns. These direct payments are non-taxable income.

Extension of federal pandemic unemployment compensation: Restores FPUC supplement to all state and federal unemployment benefits at $300 per week, starting after Dec. 26, 2020, and ending March 14, 2021. These unemployment benefits are taxable income.

Small business PPP forgivable loans: The new legislation clarifies tax treatment under the CARES Act. Borrowers may deduct PPP business expenses financed with PPP loans, and loan forgiveness is not taxable income. New funding allows “PPP second-draw” loans for smaller and harder-hit businesses, with a maximum of $2 million.

Business meals tax deduction raised to 100% through 2022, increased from 50%. Traders don’t have many business meals.

TTS traders might qualify for direct payments but not unemployment benefits since they don’t have earned income from trading. The SBA labels trading a speculative business precluding it from SBA loans, including PPP loans.

Full details have yet to be released, so stay tuned to our blog to see how this impacts TTS traders.

See the CARES Act in our Tax Center.

How Traders Improve Tax Savings With Year-End Strategies

November 11, 2020 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Tax Planning

Year-end tax planning for traders varies based on eligibility for trader tax status (TTS) in 2020 and 2021. There are different strategies to consider for investors, TTS traders using the capital gains method, and TTS traders using Section 475 MTM ordinary gain and loss treatment.

In this blog post, I examine all three groups and touch on the topics of new traders, S-Corps for employee benefits, Roth IRA conversions, and navigating the SALT cap.

The 2017 Tax Cuts And Jobs Act (TCJA) suspended investment fees and expenses for investors, and the 2020 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act did not change that. After TCJA, the only itemized deductions for investors are margin interest expense limited to investment income and stock-borrow fees. TCJA roughly doubled the standard deduction: with an inflation adjustment for 2020, it’s $24,800 married, $12,400 single, and $18,650 head of household. TCJA’s $10,000 cap on state and local taxes (SALT) leads many taxpayers to use the standard deduction.

TTS traders are better off; they deduct trading business expenses, startup costs, and home office expenses from gross income (Schedule C for sole proprietors). Brokerage commissions are transaction costs deducted from trading gains or losses; they are not separate expenses.

In 2020 with Covid-19 stay-at-home orders and remote work, many new traders entered the markets. Some achieved TTS for a partial year in 2020, whereas others won’t qualify until 2021. If your TTS commences in January 2021, you can capitalize on some hardware, software, and other intangible costs incurred in 2020 for depreciation and amortization expense with TTS’s commencement in early 2021. For example, computers, monitors, and home office furniture contribute to these costs at fair market value for TTS expensing in 2021. Some expenses like subscriptions, education, and software can be capitalized as Section 195 startup costs. Section 195 allows expensing up to $5,000 in 2021, with the rest deducted straight-line over 15 years. We allow TTS traders to go back six months before TTS inception for Section 195 costs and even further back for hardware costs.

Investors and TTS traders using the default realization method (not Section 475 MTM) should consider “tax-loss selling” before year-end to reduce capital gains income and the related tax liability. However, be careful to avoid wash-sale loss adjustments on securities at year-end 2020, which defer the tax loss to 2021. For example, suppose you realize a capital loss on Dec. 15, 2020, in Exxon and repurchase a substantially identical position (Exxon stock or option) 30 days before or after that date. In that case, it’s a wash-sale (WS) loss adjustment. The WS loss defers to 2021 when it is added to the replacement position’s cost basis. The rules are different for brokers vs. taxpayers, so avoid permanent WS between taxable and IRA accounts. Section 1256 contracts have MTM by default, so WS is a moot point on futures. (See more on WS on our website.)

If you expect a net capital loss for 2020 over the $3,000 capital loss limitation against other income, then you’ll have a capital loss carryover (CLCO) to 2021 and subsequent years. You can use up a CLCO with capital gains in the following years. For example, if your CLCO is $25,000 going into 2021, and you have 2021 capital gains of $30,000, then you’ll have $5,000 of net capital gains for 2021.

If you incur a significant capital loss in Section 1256 contracts, consider a 1256 loss carryback election made on Form 6781 filed with your 2020 tax return. That allows you to amend the prior three-year tax returns to apply the 1256 loss against 1256 gains only.

If your 2020 taxable income is considerably under the capital gains tax bracket of $80,000 for married and $40,000 for unmarried individuals, then your long-term capital gains (LTCG) tax rate is 0%. For example, assume your taxable married-filing-joint income is $50,000 as of late December 2020. You can sell investments held over 12 months with up to $30,000 of capital gains at a 0% tax rate. Don’t cut it too close, though: If your taxable income is $80,500, it will trigger the 15% rate on all LTCG. The 0% rate applies to Section 1256 contracts: 60% uses the LTCG rate, and 40% the short-term rate, which is the ordinary rate.

There is also the Affordable Care Act (ACA) 3.8% net investment tax (NIT) on net investment income (NII) for upper-income taxpayers with modified AGI above $250,000 married and $200,000 single. Tax-loss selling and other deductions lower AGI and NII, which can help avoid or reduce NIT.

President-elect Joe Biden’s Tax Plan proposed raising the top LTCG rate of 20% to a maximum ordinary rate of 39.6% (up from 37%), applying only to taxpayers with income over $1 million. Passing Biden’s tax plan will be difficult if the Senate remains under Republican control.

There may be further Covid-19 aid and tax relief bills enacted during the lame-duck session, impacting year-end tax planning. (See How Covid-19 Tax Relief & Aid Legislation Impacts Traders.)

Traders who have massive trading gains in 2020 should focus on 2020 Q4 estimated taxes due Jan. 15, 2021. Using the safe-harbor exception to cover 2019 tax liabilities, some traders can defer much of their tax payments to April 15, 2021. Just don’t lose the tax money in the markets in Q1 2021; consider setting it aside. (See Traders Should Focus On Q4 Estimated Taxes Due January 15.)

Traders eligible for TTS
If a trader qualifies for TTS in 2020, he or she can deduct trading business expenses, startup costs, and home-office expenses. The trader did not have to elect TTS or create an entity. (Section 475 requires a timely election.) It’s okay to commence TTS during the year, although we prefer not later than Sept. 30; otherwise, the IRS could challenge TTS for Q4 or less. (See How To Be Eligible For Substantial Tax Savings As A Trader.)

TTS traders planning to upgrade computers and other expenses should consider accelerating business expenses before year-end. New equipment and furniture need be purchased and put to use before year-end. TCJA mostly provides full expensing with tangible property expense up to $2,500 per item, Section 179 (100%) depreciation, or bonus depreciation.

TTS traders with Section 475 MTM
TTS traders using section 475 mark-to-market (MTM) accounting report ordinary gains or losses on Form 4797. Section 475 trades are not subject to WS or a capital-loss limitation so that an ordinary loss can offset income of any kind. MTM reports unrealized gains and losses at year-end, so the taxpayer doesn’t have to do tax-loss selling on TTS trading positions.

Many TTS traders also have segregated investment positions, so they should consider WS and tax-loss selling on investment positions. Investments are not subject to Section 475, meaning you can defer capital gains and achieve the LTCG rate on investment positions if held 12 months. If you trade in substantially identical positions that you also invest in, the IRS can attempt to recharacterize TTS trades vs. investments. Avoid that issue by considering a TTS LLC/partnership or TTS LLC/S-Corp for 2021 to ring-fence trading positions.

If you have significant Section 475 ordinary losses for 2020, the CARES Act provides substantial relief. The CARES Act allows a five-year net operating loss (NOL) carryback applied against income of any kind. CARES also temporarily reversed TCJA’s “excess business loss” (EBL) limitation of $500,000 married and $250,000 for other taxpayers (2018 limits and adjusted each year for inflation). Under TCJA, you have to add EBL amounts to NOL carryforwards.

For example, a TTS/475 trader filing single with a $300,000 ordinary loss and $25,000 TTS expenses would have a 2020 NOL of approximately $325,000. The $250,000 EBL limitation does not apply. This trader can carry back the 2020 NOL five years and use it against any type of income. Alternatively, if preferred, the taxpayer can elect to carry it forward instead. TCJA NOL rules apply again in 2021, limiting NOLs to 80% of taxable income with the remainder carried over to subsequent years. Under its latest Covid-19 relief bills, the House proposed revising the NOL and EBL rules, reapplying EBL to all years, and limiting the number of NOL carryback years. Many taxpayers already filed NOL carryback returns under CARES, so it’s hard to reverse those rules now.

If a TTS trader has significant TTS/475 income, they might be eligible for a 20% “qualified business income” (QBI) deduction. Sole proprietors only get this QBI deduction if they are under the QBI taxable income threshold of $326,600 married and $163,300 for other taxpayers (2020 threshold adjusted for inflation). Determine the QBI deduction on the lower of taxable income or QBI. Suppose you have a TTS S-Corp with officer compensation. In that case, there is also a phase-out/phase-in range based on wages and qualified property for an additional $100,000 married and $50,000 other taxpayers.

New traders
No matter when you started trading, you can claim TTS eligibility and add a Schedule C for the TTS expense deductions for all or part of the year. (See Will The IRS Deny Tax Benefits To Traders Due To Covid?)

It’s now too late in 2020 to form a new entity that can qualify for TTS, as we like to see entity trading for at least all of Q4. Instead, consider a Section 475 election for 2021, due by April 15, 2021, for individuals and March 15, 2021, for existing partnerships and S-Corps. (See Traders Elect 475 For Enormous Tax Savings.)

S-Corps for employee benefits
A TTS S-Corp can unlock officer health insurance (HI) and retirement plan deductions using officer payroll. The insurance premium can be added to officer payroll on the W-2. That opens an AGI deduction for HI on the officer’s tax return. The officer HI compensation is not subject to payroll tax (social security and Medicare).

If profitable as of early December 2020, the S-Corp can pay additional compensation up to a maximum of $150,000 to maximize a Solo 401(k) retirement plan contribution. For 2020, it combines a 100% deductible “elective deferral” (ED) contribution of $19,500 with a 25% deductible profit-sharing plan contribution (PSP) up to a maximum of $37,500. There is also an ED “catch-up provision” of $6,500 for 2020 for taxpayers age 50 and over. Together, the maximum 2020 tax-deductible contribution is $57,000, and when including the catch-up provision, it’s $63,500. The ED portion can be a Roth, so there would be no tax deduction but permanent tax-free status. The PSP must be traditional, though.

Payroll tax includes 12.4% social security taxes but not exceeding the social security base amount of $137,700 for 2020. Medicare tax of 2.9% is unlimited without a base. The employer and employee each pay half the payroll taxes, and the employer deducts its 50% share.

Joe Biden’s tax Plan proposes to subject earned income over $400,000 to payroll taxes. Social security taxes (FICA) only apply to the SSA base amount of $137,700 for 2020 and $142,800 for 2021. Biden’s plan creates a donut hole, but it should not affect traders since they only need $150,000 of wages to maximize a Solo 401(k) retirement plan. A TTS S Corp is not subject to IRS “reasonable compensation” rules as its underlying income is unearned.

An S-Corp accountable reimbursement plan can be used to pay the officer shareholder for home-office and other employee expenses. The IRS requires reimbursement before the year-end 2020.

Partners in LLCs taxed as partnerships can deduct “unreimbursed partnership expenses” (UPE). That is how they usually deduct home office expenses. UPE is more convenient than using an S-Corp accountable plan because the partner can arrange the UPE after year-end.

Roth IRA conversions
You may wish to convert a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA before the year-end. The conversion income is taxable in 2020. Avoid the 10% excise tax on early withdrawals before age 59 1⁄2 by paying the Roth conversion taxes outside the Roth plan. TCJA repealed the recharacterization option, so you can no longer reverse the conversion if the plan assets decline. Roth IRA conversions have no income limit, unlike regular Roth IRA contributions.

Navigating around the SALT cap
According to Bloomberg Law’s SALT Cap Workarounds May Catch On in More States After IRS OK (Nov. 10, 2020):

“More states are expected to pass laws letting businesses avoid the limit on personal tax deductions for state and local taxes, following IRS guidance approving the workaround. Already, states including New Jersey and Connecticut softened the blow of the $10,000 SALT cap with provisions for pass-through businesses like partnerships and S corporations, which are taxed normally at the owner level. The IRS said Monday in a notice that forthcoming proposed rules will allow the states’ workaround, which involves an entity-level tax that is offset by a corresponding individual income tax credit.

“The agency in 2019 killed off (T.D. 9864) a different workaround some states tried, which would have allowed state tax credits for donations made to charitable funds.”

More states might enact this workaround before the year-end 2020. Before you pay Q4 2020 estimated taxes due by Jan. 15, 2021, see if your state allows or requires your partnership or S-Corp to pay taxes for your benefit. Connecticut’s workaround law is mandatory.

For more year-end tax planning strategies, see Green’s 2020 Trader Tax Guide and stay tuned for blog updates.

Consider our 2020 tax compliance service, which includes year-end tax planning and 2020 tax return preparation. We accept new clients for our tax compliance service, providing you are a retail trader, a proprietary trader, or an investment manager. Most of our trader clients are eligible for trader tax status (TTS) benefits. We are pleased to invite traders who fall short of TTS in 2020 to use our 2020 tax compliance service. Perhaps, you will qualify for TTS in 2021 and need a 475 election then, too. By email, please request a new client evaluation (NCE).

Darren Neuschwander, CPA contributed to this blog post.

Traders Should Focus On Q4 Estimated Taxes Due Jan. 15

September 25, 2020 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Many traders have substantial trading gains for 2020 YTD, and they might owe 2020 estimated taxes paid to the IRS quarterly. Unlike wages, taxes aren’t withheld from trading gains. Others can wait on tax payments until April 15, 2021, when they file their 2020 tax return or extension.

The first two-quarters of estimated tax payments were due July 15, 2020 (the postponed date due to Covid), Q3 was due on Sept. 15, 2020, and Q4 is due on Jan. 15, 2021. Many new traders didn’t submit estimated payments for the first three quarters, waiting to see what Q4 brings. With full transparency at year-end, traders can make Q4 payments with more clarity. Some traders view estimated taxes similar to a margin loan with interest rates of 5% for Q1 and Q2, and 3% for Q3.

The safe-harbor rule for paying estimated taxes says there’s no penalty for underpayment if the payment equals 90% of the current-year tax bill or 100% of the previous year’s amount (whichever is lower). If your prior-year adjusted gross income (AGI) exceeded $150,000 or $75,000 if married filing separately, then the safe-harbor rate rises to 110%. 

Suppose your 2019 tax liability was $40,000, and AGI was over $150,000. Assume 2020 taxes will be approximately $100,000, and you haven’t paid estimates going into Q4. Using the safe-harbor rule, you can spread out the payment, submitting $44,000 (110% of $40,000) with a Q4 voucher on Jan. 15, 2021, and paying the balance of $56,000 by April 15, 2021. This is an excellent option to consider instead of sending $90,000 in Q4 (90% of $100,000). Consider setting aside that tax money due April 15 rather than risking it in the financial markets in Q1 2021. I’ve seen some traders lose their tax money owed and get into trouble with the IRS. 

In the above example, the trader should calculate the underpayment of estimated tax penalties for Q1, Q2, and Q3 on the 2020 Form 2210. Consider using Form 2210’s Annualized Income Installment Method (page 4) if the trader generated most of his trading income later in the year. The default method on 2210 allocates the annual income to each quarter, respectively.

If your 2019 income tax liability is significantly higher than your 2020 tax liability, consider covering 90% of the current year’s taxes with estimated taxes. Check your state’s estimated tax rules, too.

Learn more about estimated taxes at

Employees have another way to avoid underpayment of estimated tax penalties on non-wage income. They can ask employers to increase their wage tax withholding in November and December, which the IRS treats as equally made throughout the year.

Darren Neuschwander CPA contributed to this blog post.

Will The IRS Deny Tax Benefits To Traders Due To Covid?

September 14, 2020 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

So far, 2020 has been a highly volatile year in the financial markets due to significant uncertainty over Covid-19, a shock to the economy, and job losses. As the virus spread in the U.S, millions of displaced Americans turned to trading in financial markets as a means of making a new living. Some became active enough to qualify for trader tax status (TTS) benefits, which requires regular, frequent, and continuous trading. However, will the IRS deny TTS to Covid-19 traders if they only carry on a trading business during the pandemic for a short time?

I’m not as worried about existing traders from 2019 who incurred massive trading losses in Q1 2020 during the Covid correction and stopped trading at that time. Hopefully, they made a Section 475 ordinary loss election due by the July 15, 2020 deadline, which is conditional on eligibility for TTS. These pre-Covid traders were in business for more than 15 months, so their TTS/475 ordinary loss deduction should be safe.

I am more concerned with the millions of newcomer traders who opened online trading accounts offering free or low commissions in 2020. Many rookies have significant trading gains year-to-date, even after the recent sell-off. In the trading business, gains can turn into losses with a substantial correction. When that happens, TTS traders count on Section 475 for tax-loss or fire-loss insurance: The trading house burns down, and you can file for a refund with the IRS. The CARES Act permits five-year net operating loss (NOL) carryback refund claims for 2020, 2019, and 2018 tax returns.

Some rookie traders start off meeting the IRS requirements for TTS. Those rules are vague, so see GreenTraderTax’s golden rules for TTS. I wonder how IRS agents will consider the Covid pandemic when assessing TTS. Consider a furloughed worker who started trading at home full time in mid-2020. Was the trader’s intention to create a new business for the long-term, or to buy time and make some extra money before returning to his or her career after the pandemic subsides? TTS requires the intention to run a business from catching daily market movements, not from making investments for appreciation.

If a new trader started trading on June 1, 2020, but stops or significantly slows down trading when returning to work in November 2020, will the IRS deny TTS because he only traded actively for five months? The IRS agent might cite the landmark tax court case Chen vs. Commissioner, where TTS was denied. Chen only carried on TTS for three months.

I analyzed the Chen case in my trader tax guide; here’s an excerpt. 

Chen vs. Commissioner

Comments from a senior IRS official about the Chen tax court case point out the IRS doesn’t respect individual traders who are brand new to trading activity and who enter and exit it too quickly. Chen only traded for three months before losing his trading money, thereby leaving his trading activity. Chen kept his software engineering job during his three months of trading.

The Chen case indicates the IRS wants to see a more extended time to establish TTS. Some IRS agents like to intimidate taxpayers with a full year requirement, but the law does not require that. Hundreds of thousands of businesses start and fail within three months, and the IRS doesn’t challenge them on business status. The IRS is rightfully more skeptical of traders vs. investors, perhaps even more so during the pandemic. The longer a trader can continue his business trading activity, the better his chances are with the IRS. We often ask clients about their trading activities in the prior and subsequent years as we prepare their tax returns for the year that just ended. Vigorous subsequent-year trading activities and gains add credibility to the tax return being filed. We mention these points in tax return footnotes, too. Traders can start their trading business in Q4 and continue it into the subsequent year.

Chen messed up many things in this case. First and foremost, he lied to the IRS about electing Section 475 MTM ordinary loss treatment on time and then used 475 MTM when he wasn’t eligible. Chen should have been subject to a $3,000 capital loss limitation rather than deducting a massive 475 ordinary loss triggering a huge tax refund. Second, he brought a losing case to tax court and made the mistake of representing himself. Once Chen was busted on the phony MTM election, he caved in on all points, including TTS. Chen did not have many TTS business expenses, so he figured it wasn’t worth continuing to fight.

Even though he only traded for three months while keeping his full-time job, it doesn’t mean he didn’t start a new business — intending to change careers to business trading — and make a substantial investment of time, money, and activity. Tax code or case law doesn’t state that a business must be carried on for a full year or as the primary means of making a living. Countless companies startup and fail in a few short months, and many times the entrepreneur hasn’t left his or her job while experimenting as a businessperson. Chen may have won TTS had he been upfront with the IRS and engaged a tax attorney or trader tax expert to represent him in court.

TTS tax benefits

  1. TTS traders deduct business expenses, startup costs, and home office expenses. Without TTS, investors may only deduct margin interest expense to the extent they have investment income as an itemized deduction. Many use the standard deduction instead.
  2. TTS traders are entitled to elect the robust Section 475 mark-to-market accounting, which converts capital gains and losses into ordinary gains and losses. Short-term capital gains on securities are ordinary income; whereas, 475 ordinary business losses generate tax refunds much faster than a $3,000 capital loss limitation. Section 475 also exempts securities trades from onerous wash sale loss rules, a headache for active traders, which causes phantom income and potentially excess tax liability. The 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction applies to 475 net income if the taxpayer is under a taxable income threshold. QBI excludes capital gains. Individuals had to elect 475 for 2020 by the postponed deadline of July 15, 2020. A new LLC partnership or S-Corp can select 475 within 75 days of inception.
  3. With a TTS S-Corp, traders can deduct health insurance and retirement plan contributions.

I consult new traders on TTS. It’s incredible how many of these traders, from all walks of life, ages and careers, have made small fortunes since April. Others incurred substantial losses. During my tax consultations, many clients tell me they don’t want to return to their jobs if and when called back, and that TTS trading is their new career, which they cherish.

In The Tax Moves Day Traders Need to Make Now, Laura Saunders and Mischa Frankl-Duval report on this very issue (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 11, 2020), warning taxpayers to be careful when thinking about claiming TTS.

Our own Darren Neuschwander, CPA, was interviewed for the piece, stating he has seen a rise in inquiries about trader tax status this year. “The requirements for this break haven’t been clarified by the IRS, but they are stiff. Among other things, traders often need to trade for at least four hours a day, for an average of four days a week, and make at least 720 trades a year,” Neuschwander said.

Also, see my interview in theWall Street Journal’s July 5, 2020 article, The Benefits of Calling Yourself a ‘Trader’ for Tax Purposes by Nick Ravo.