February 2020

March 16 Is Tax Deadline For S-Corp And Partnership Extensions And Elections (Live Updates)

February 27, 2020 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Updates

May 20: 2019 calendar-year partnership and S-Corp tax returns, and 2020 Section 475 elections for partnerships and S-Corps, were due March 16, 2020. These pass-through tax returns and entity 475 elections are not eligible for virus tax relief with the July 15, 2020 postponement deadline. Postponement relief is limited to 2019 tax returns due April 1, 2020, or after, and the March 16 deadline was before April 1. However, fiscal-year partnership or S-Corp tax returns due on April 1, 2020, or later are eligible for the July 15 deadline.

Traders have calendar-year partnerships and S-Corps, so these entities are not eligible for the July 15 postponement date. Most traders filed 2019 partnership or S-Corp extensions by March 16, some along with 2020 Section 475 elections for the entity. Some of these traders asked our firm if their entity could take advantage of the postponed deadline for making a Section 475 MTM election. The answer is no. Individual traders (sole proprietors) are eligible for July 15 relief for filing 2019 individual tax returns, extensions, and 2020 individual Section 475 elections.

March 24: The IRS published FAQs to support Notice 2020-18 for the April 15 tax-deadline postponement to July 15: Filing and Payment Deadlines Questions and Answers. Unfortunately, 2019 partnership and S-Corp tax returns or extensions that were due March 16, 2020, are not eligible for this IRS relief. 

March 13: The president declared a national emergency (Stafford Act), allowing the IRS to postpone tax filings/payments and to remove penalties and interest. Partnership and S-Corps are due March 16, so I hope the IRS acts fast! (See April 15 Tax Deadline.Might Get Coronavirus Relief)

Original blog post, dated Feb. 27, 2020

March 16 is the deadline for filing 2019 S-Corp and partnership tax returns, or extensions, 2020 S-Corp elections for existing entities, and 2020 Section 475 elections for a pass-through entity. Don’t miss any of these tax filings or elections; it could cost you.

2019 S-Corp and partnership tax extensions
Extensions are easy to prepare and file for S-Corps and partnerships since they pass-through income and loss to the owner, usually an individual. Generally, pass-through entities are tax-filers, but not taxpayers.

S-Corps and partnerships use Form 7004 (Application for Automatic Extension of Time To File Certain Business Income Tax, Information, and Other Returns). Extensions give six additional months to file a federal tax return — by Sept. 15, 2020.

Some states require a state extension filing, whereas others accept the federal extension. Some states have S-Corp franchise taxes, excise taxes, or minimum taxes, and payments are usually due with the extensions by March 16. LLCs filing as partnerships may have minimum taxes or annual reports due to the extension by March 16. States assess penalties and interest, often based on payments due.

See S-Corp 2019 Form 1120-S instructions, “Interest and Penalties” on page 4:

“Late filing of return. A penalty may be assessed if the return is filed after the due date (including extensions) or the return doesn’t show all the information required, unless each failure is due to reasonable cause. See Caution, earlier. For returns on which no tax is due, the penalty is $205 for each month or part of a month (up to 12 months) the return is late or doesn’t include the required information, multiplied by the total number of persons who were shareholders in the corporation during any part of the corporation’s tax year for which the return is due. If tax is due, the penalty is the amount stated above plus 5% of the unpaid tax for each month or part of a month the return is late, up to a maximum of 25% of the unpaid tax. The minimum penalty for a return that is more than 60 days late is the smaller of the tax due or $435.

Failure to furnish information timely. For each failure to furnish Schedule K-1 to a shareholder when due and each failure to include on Schedule K-1 all the information required to be shown (or the inclusion of incorrect information), a $270 penalty may be imposed. If the requirement to report correct information is intentionally disregarded, each $270 penalty is increased to $550 or, if greater, 10% of the aggregate amount of items required to be reported. The penalty won’t be imposed if the corporation can show that not furnishing information timely was due to reasonable cause. See Caution, earlier.

If the corporation receives a notice about penalties after it files its return, send the IRS an explanation and we will determine if the corporation meets reasonable-cause criteria. Don’t attach an explanation when the corporation’s return is filed.”

See partnership 2019 Form 1065 instructions, “Penalties” on page 6:

“Late Filing of Return. A penalty is assessed against the partnership if it is required to file a partnership return and it (a) fails to file the return by the due date, including extensions, or (b) files a return that fails to show all the information required, unless such failure is due to reasonable cause. The penalty is $205 for each month or part of a month (for a maximum of 12 months) the failure continues, multiplied by the total number of persons who were partners in the partnership during any part of the partnership’s tax year for which the return is due. If the partnership receives a notice about a penalty after it files the return, the partnership may send the IRS an explanation and the Service will determine if the explanation meets reasonable-cause criteria. Do not attach an explanation when filing the return.

Failure To Furnish Information Timely. For each failure to furnish Schedule K-1 to a partner when due and each failure to include on Schedule K-1 all the information required to be shown (or the inclusion of incorrect information), a $270 penalty may be imposed for each Schedule K-1 for which a failure occurs. The maximum penalty is $3,339,000 for all such failures during a calendar year. If the requirement to report correct information is intentionally disregarded, each $270 penalty is increased to $550 or, if greater, 10% of the aggregate amount of items required to be reported. There is no limit to the amount of the penalty in the case of intentional disregard.”

2020 S-Corp elections

Traders qualifying for trader tax status (TTS) and interested in employee benefit plan deductions, including health insurance and retirement plan deductions, probably need an S-Corp. They should consider a 2020 S-Corp election on Form 2553 for an existing trading entity, due by March 16, 2020, or form a new company and file an S-Corp election within 75 days of inception. Most states accept the federal S-Corp election, but a few states do not; they require a separate S-Corp election filing by March 16. If you overlooked filing a 2019 S-Corp election by March 15, 2019 and intended to elect S-Corp tax treatment as of that date, you may qualify for IRS relief. (See Late Election Relief.) (Sole proprietor traders do not have self-employment income, which means they cannot have self-employed health insurance and retirement plan deductions. TTS partnerships face significant obstacles in achieving self-employment income.)

2020 Section 475 MTM elections for S-Corps and partnerships

TTS traders should consider attaching a 2020 Section 475 election statement to their 2019 tax return or extension due by March 16 for partnerships and S-Corps or by April 15 for individuals. Section 475 turns 2020 capital gains and losses into ordinary gains and losses, thereby avoiding the capital loss limitation and wash sale loss adjustments (tax loss insurance). Section 475 income, net of TTS expenses, is eligible for the “qualified business income” (QBI) deduction subject to taxable income limitations.

If a TTS partnership or S-Corp wants to revoke a prior-year Section 475 election, a revocation election statement is due by March 16, 2020.

If you need help, consider a consultation.


How To Qualify For Substantial Tax Savings As A Trader

February 5, 2020 | By: Robert A. Green, CPA | Read it on

Trader tax status (TTS) constitutes business expense treatment and unlocks an assortment of meaningful tax benefits for those who qualify. The first step is to determine eligibility. If you do qualify for TTS, you can claim some tax breaks such as business expense treatment after the fact and elect and set up other breaks — like Section 475 MTM and employee-benefit plans — on a timely basis.

Business expenses include home-office, education, startup expenses, organization expenses, margin interest, tangible property expense, Section 179 (100%) or 100% bonus depreciation, amortization on software, self-created automated trading systems, seminars, market data, stock borrow fees, and much more. The Tax Cuts & Jobs Act suspended “certain miscellaneous itemized deductions subject to the 2% floor,” including investment fees and expenses, commencing in 2018.

Securities traders with TTS should consider electing Section 475 ordinary gain or loss treatment by April 15 (individuals) and March 16, 2020 (existing partnerships or S-Corps). I call it tax-loss insurance: It exempts securities trades from wash sale loss adjustments and the $3,000 capital loss limitation. Profitable 475 traders are eligible for the 20% qualified business income (QBI) deduction. QBI excludes capital gains and losses.

A TTS S-Corp unlocks deductions for health insurance premiums and high-deductible retirement plan contributions.

Traders who do not qualify for TTS aren’t eligible for any of these tax benefits.

How to qualify
It’s not easy to be eligible for TTS. Currently, there’s no statutory law with objective tests for eligibility. Subjective case law applies a two-part test:

  1. Taxpayers’ trading activity must be substantial, regular, frequent, and continuous.
  2. A taxpayer must seek to catch swings in daily market movements and profit from these short-term changes rather than profiting from long-term holding of investments.

Golden rules
Volume, frequency, and average holding period are the “big three” because they are more accessible for the IRS to verify.

Volume: The 2015 tax court case Poppe vs. Commission is a useful reference. Poppe made 720 total trades per year/60 per month. We recommend an average of four trades per day, four days per week, 16 trades per week, 60 a month, and 720 per year on an annualized basis. Count each open and closing trade separately, not round trip. Scaling in and out counts, too.

Frequency: Executes trades on close to four days per week, around a 75% frequency rate.

Holding period: In the Endicott court, the IRS said the average holding period must be 31 days or less. That’s a bright-line test.

Trades full time or part-time, for a good portion of the day, almost every day the markets are open. Part-time and money-losing traders face more IRS scrutiny, and individuals face more scrutiny than entity traders.

Hours: Spends more than four hours per day, almost every market day working on the trading business — all time counts.

Avoid sporadic lapses: Has few to no intermittent lapses in the trading business during the year.

Intention: Has the intention to run a business and make a living. It doesn’t have to be a primary living.

Operations: Has significant business equipment, education, business services, and a home office.

Account size: Has a material account size. Securities traders need to have $25,000 on deposit with a U.S.-based broker to achieve pattern day trader (PDT) status. For the minimum account size, we like to see more than $15,000.

What doesn’t qualify?
These four types of trading activity do not count for TTS qualification.

  1. Outside-developed automated trading systems (ATS). A computerized trading service with little to no human involvement doesn’t qualify for TTS. On the other hand, if the trader can show he’s very involved with the creation of the ATS — perhaps by writing the code or algorithms, setting the entry and exit signals, and turning over only execution to the program — the IRS may count those trades.
  2. Trade copying service. Some traders use trade copying software. Trade copying is similar to using a canned ATS or outside adviser, where the copycat trader might not qualify for TTS on those trades.
  3. Engaging a money manager. Hiring a registered investment adviser or commodity trading adviser — whether they are duly registered or exempt from registration — to trade one’s account doesn’t count toward TTS qualification.
  4. Trading retirement funds. Achieve TTS through trading in taxable accounts. Trading activity in non-taxable retirement accounts doesn’t count for purposes of TTS qualification.

For more in-depth information on TTS, see Green’s 2020 Trader Tax Guide Chapter 1 “Trader Tax Status.”

 


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